Grapes are one of the species of the botanical family Ampelidees - ampel. The fossilized remains of branches and leaves, which are considered grape and belong to the Tertiary era, testify to the ancient origin of this plant.
The plant material currently used in viticulture is the result of prolonged artificial selection.
There are several thousand varieties of grapevines, or seedlings belonging to the European species Vinis vinifera (which in Latin means a vine that brings wine), but there are a rather limited number of bushes serving as a material for the production of quality wines (about 300 varieties). Although any grape can be fermented, nevertheless, of the whole variety of varieties existing in the world, only one, the European Vitis vinifera, contains enough sugar that is capable of fermentation and a low level of carbon dioxide, that is, those components from which the transformation of grapes into a harmonious wine depends, and it does not require the addition of sugar, which increases the alcohol content, and the addition of water, which reduces the acid level. It is Vitis vinifera, with several thousand varieties, that basically provides the world with wine.
Before the advent of the American pest in Europe grape - phylloxera in 1868, the vine was grown, as a rule, by planting cuttings in the ground. In order to avoid the enormous losses and the almost complete disappearance of the vines that followed the attack of the overseas bug, Europe began to resort to grafting grapes from bushes of North American origin: they carry insect bites without dying, like European varieties.
Now, with the exception of vineyards growing in the sands of the Mediterranean coast, where phylloxera does not spread, almost the entire European “grape park” consists of grafted varieties.
The vine has a long lifespan: before the phylloxera invasion in the 60s of the XIX century. Centennial vineyards were common. Although grafted vines are often dug up before they reach the age of forty when their fertility begins to decline, some growers never dig a healthy viable vine. After all, even if she brings a smaller crop, her qualities still continue to improve. The age of the vine is one of the most significant factors, important for the quality of the wine that is obtained from this vine. It can begin to bear fruit already in the second year after planting, but the vine can give its best berries only a few years later, when its roots take root in the upper soil layer and begin to gradually grow into the subsoil, splitting hard stones and crushing dense gravel or clay for many meters way down. There vines can feed on minerals from underground sources. Over the years, the taste of these minerals will be reflected in the fullness and bouquet of a great wine.
However, the age of the vines is not yet a source of the unique character of great wines; the location of the vineyard is also of great importance. Both young and old vines love well-drained soil. This, as well as the need for protection from wind and heat, which is necessary in some areas of the land, has always limited the production of the best varieties of wines, since grapes had to be grown on the hillsides, some of which had steep ledges, and some had more gentle terraces. Another valuable circumstance for the vine is gravel stony soil. Stones absorb the sun's heat during the day, and at night give it to the vines, protecting them from the spring cold and increasing the chances of the grapes to ripen in the fall. It is known that the best varieties of Campanian grapes were grown in antiquity, and even now on the slopes of Vesuvius, where basalt and tuff lava soils prevail.
Different grape varieties require different soils: in Jerez, the chalky soils and Palomino grapes are directly related, and in France the Chardonnay and Pinot Noir grape varieties growing on the chalky soils of Champagne and in Burgundy on the Gold Coast give their the best wine. Gamay grapes, growing on the chalky soils of the Gold Coast, will produce poor wine, but from the same grapes growing on the granite slopes in Beaujolais, they produce wine of a rare taste and aroma. Cabernet Sauvignon, easily adaptable to any conditions, an example of this is that it is grown almost everywhere where wine is produced.
Whatever variety the vine belongs to, it must be healthy and immune, without being too “life-affirming”. Excessive vitality would atomize the plant's energy, it would be too lush and produce a lot of grapes. In order to control the growth of healthy vines and preserve the qualities inherent in individual varieties or local varieties of a particular grape variety, many winegrowers are engaged in cuttings selection - reproduction of genetically identical vines using cuttings.
So, as we already said, each variety has its own properties that affect its adaptability to certain local conditions, such as climatic conditions, soil structure. Technological features of each variety, such as the color of berries, their chemical composition, sugar content, acidity, quality of wort, are of paramount importance in the science of winemaking. These characteristics are directly dependent on the climate of the year, the nature of the soil, its agronomic content and the behavior of the vine. The same bush grown on different soils will produce different wines. In addition, each variety gives the wine a special aroma and taste that are unique to it. The combination of vine-soil determines the quality and features of the product. Strictly adjusted balance of all interconnected elements makes up the character of wine. There are wines made from a mixture of different grape varieties, each of which gives the wine its own special qualities, such as aroma, color, strength, acidity and density.
There are white and red grape varieties.
The most famous white grape varieties are:
Chardonnay is the most famous variety, but not the most common. It accounts for about 1% of all grapes that are grown in the world. It is a stable, strong variety. It is used in Burgundy and Champagne in the production of long-lived white wines. The taste of Chardonnay wines is delicate fruity, sometimes it contains a vanilla hue of an oak barrel.
Sauvignon Blanc - often this variety is put in second place after Chardonnay. The wine from Sauvignon Blanc is strong, high in acid. The best wines from this variety are made by winemakers of the upper Loire.
Semillon is the main grape variety of white Bordeaux wines. Dry and sweet wines are made from it. In addition to Bordeaux, this variety is widespread in Australia and Chile.
Riesling is considered one of the best grape varieties in the world with high acidity. Riesling grows in cooler climates such as Germany and Alsace. The range of wines produced from Riesling is very wide: these are dry wines with an alcohol content of 6.5% in Germany and sweet wines with an alcohol content of 13% in Alsace and Australia. Excerpted wines produced from Riesling can last for decades.
Chenin Blanc - a variety that gives grapes of high acidity with the possibility of long-term aging. In successful years, sweet wines are obtained from this grape, with a pleasant acidity, dumb astringents.
Gewurztraminer is a grape variety common in Alsace and Germany. It is very fragrant, which gives the wine an exotic smell. Wine from this variety has a low acidity and an average percentage of alcohol.
Muscat - a very wide range of wines is produced from this grape variety: dry, sweet and effervescent, fortified sweet, nutmegs. All wines made from this variety have a grape smell.
The famous red grape varieties are as follows:
Cabernet Sauvignon - is as popular as the white Chardonnay. Its rich deep color of thick skin makes the wine dark and fragrant. The high content of tannin in the peel of berries allows exposing the resulting wines to many years of aging. Cabernet Sauvignon wines are usually aged in oak barrels.
Merlot - this grade has less tannin, so it gives more delicate, early-ripening wines. In addition to France, this variety is common in California, Italy and Bulgaria. Pinot Noir - This variety is highly dependent on climate and has a lower yield than Chardonnay. This variety has a low content of tannin and acid, the color is less intense than the color of wines obtained from Cabernet Sauvignon.
Cabernet Franc - a variety used for mixing with Cabernet Sauvignon, produces lighter wines with a low tannin content. Very widespread in the north of Italy. Ghana - This variety is used for the production of Beaujolais and some other Burgundy wines. Ghana has a light fruity taste.
Grenache - This variety is widespread in the south of France and Spain. In France, Grenache is the main component in the production of wines of the Rhone Valley. In Spain, it is used to make rosé wines. Wines from this variety do not have a long aging time.
How does grape grow?
For the most part, the annual cycle in the vineyard follows an ancient path. Sleeping vines are pruned at the end of winter, when the most severe colds are already behind us, but long before the vitality of the plant begins to wake up with the advent of spring. Most of the overgrowth of the previous year is cut off and several remaining branches are cut off, leaving four to five unformed buds or eyes. Grape clusters are formed on new shoots that will grow from each eye.
In the vine growing season, unproductive shoots growing from the old trunk are cut. Further, excess new branches are chopped off in order to direct the energy of plants to the growth of grapes. Leaves growing near the bunches and interfering with the circulation of fresh air are cut off, while leaves that block the bunches from the direct rays of the sun are left. However, they try to minimize the elimination of green healthy leaves: after all, as the grapes ripen, it is the leaves that provide it with sugar.
Grape growth begins in the spring, in fact, at the same time as other plants. When the air temperature reaches about + 10 ° C, the buds begin to come to life: this is the stage of their blooming, then the first leaves appear and shoots begin to grow.
During May - June, inflorescences are formed, at the end of this period, flowering and fertilization occur. A few days after flowering, the formation of ovaries begins. This process continues in July and August: the grapes are ripening. The fruits ripen: black grapes acquire their color, and white ones lose their greenery. This is the beginning of maturity. When the berries ripen completely, you can begin to harvest. The ripening stage is characterized by the accumulation of sugar in the juice of berries - glucose and fructose, a decrease in acidity and the appearance of aroma.
The growth cycle of grapes is from 90 to 100 days from the beginning of flowering to final ripening, the fall of leaves at the end of autumn means the beginning of the period of vegetative rest.
Varieties "Cultural Grapes"
|Decorative plants and fruits|
|Berry / brush separation|
|Walnut kernel size|
|Blush (top coat)|
|Resistance to frost (fruit / bush / yag)|
|Drought tolerance (fruit / bush / yag)|
|Beginning of fruiting after planting|
|Ripening period (fruit / bush / yag)|
|Productivity (fruit / bush / yag)|
|Self-pollinating / self-fertile|
|Appointment of fruits (fruit / bush / yag)|
|Soil ph requirements (fruit / bush / yag)|
|Type of soil (fruit / bush / yag)|
|Resistance to diseases (fruit / bush / yag)|
|Habitus (fruit / bush / yag)|
|Vitamin (fruit / bush / yag)|
|The shelf life of the fruit (fruit / bush / yag)|
|Region of cultivation by originator (fruit / bush / yag)|
- 1. Description
- 2. Growing
- 3. Diseases and pests
- 4. Reproduction
- 5. First steps after purchase
- 6. Secrets of success
- 7. Possible difficulties
Cultural grapes - a type of genus Grapes (Grape family). It is assumed that the origin of the species is due to Vinogradov forest (Vitis silvestris), who managed to survive the ice age.
Who, where and when was the first to grow this plant is not known for certain. However, there is evidence that the farmers of Phenicia, Assyria, Egypt, thousands of years BC, already cultivated vineyards.
Over the past centuries, Grapes from the "comfort zone" - temperate and warm zones - spread almost throughout the globe. The total number of varieties exceeds 8000. Gardeners can only choose, focusing on personal preferences and the climate of the region.
Cultivated grapes - a ligneous liana clinging with a tendril to the nearest support. The standard length is about 2 m, although cases of growth to several tens of meters are not uncommon. Young shoots are reddish; as they grow older, the bark turns brown and is covered with grooves. Usually lianas give a bushy shape.
Leaves of medium size sit on the petioles, arranged next. They are both solid and dissected into blades. In leaf blades, the lower surface is hairy, the upper one is smooth or slightly pubescent.
Small greenish flowers are collected in panicle inflorescences. The flowering period occurs in late spring and early summer. Fruits appear from August to October, depending on the variety. Varietal accessory also determines the size, color, shape and taste of berries.
When growing grapes you need to form a bush. For this, wooden or metal poles are installed, several rows of wire are pulled between them. Creepers tie up, determining the direction of growth.
Good growth and abundant fruiting are not possible without regular pruning of grapes. In the year of planting, unripe shoots should be removed. After the first harvest, the procedure is carried out in the fall. Of the three main stems, two do not touch. The remaining one is shortened so that next year substitute shoots grow from it.
It is very important to use a clean and sharpened pruner. Old shoots are cut at a right angle. When pruning annual branches, it is necessary to step back 2-3 cm from the lower eye.
First steps after purchase
When buying, carefully inspect the seedlings. Mechanical damage, spots or traces of drying out are clear evidence that it is wiser to refuse to purchase this planting material.
It is recommended to stop the selection on a seedling with a height of at least 50 cm. With a closed root system. The soil needs to be prepared in advance. It is dug to a depth of 60 cm to a meter, mixed with fertilizers. For spring planting, the procedure is carried out in the fall, for autumn - in 3 months.
When choosing a landing method, it is necessary to take into account the climatic conditions of the region.In areas with cold, snowy winters, trenches should be prepared. Where the summer is short and cool, the arrangement of bulk ridges will be the best option. It should be noted that the first method worked well on sandy soil, the second - on loam.
After planting, you need to pour grapes with warm water and mulch the trunk circle.
Secrets of Success
Grapes are a photophilous plant. For its cultivation, it is necessary to choose a well-lit and windproof area.
Abundantly and regularly should be watered plants until they reach two years of age. After each watering or rain, loosen the soil. Adult Grapes enough to water 3-4 times per season. Mandatory remains autumn water-loading irrigation.
Even the most frost-resistant varieties need winter shelter in the first 2 years of life. Shoots are laid on spruce branches or boards, covered with non-woven material. They remove the “blanket” only when the threat of freezing frost disappears.
There are enough fertilizers introduced into the soil before planting for 3-4 years. Then the plant needs to be fed. In early spring, complex mineral fertilizers are applied, the procedure is repeated before flowering. Shortly before fruit ripening, potassium-phosphorus top dressing should be used. After harvesting - potash. It is permissible to replace mineral fertilizers with organic ones.
In addition to root dressing, it is desirable to carry out foliar - to spray the leaves of the plant with aqueous solutions of micro and macro elements. As a rule, the event is combined with fungicide treatment.
Diseases and pests do not pass grapes. All of them are well studied, treatment methods and effective drugs are developed. Full information is provided in the relevant sections of the site. It is very important to monitor the condition of the plant, inspect the shoots and leaves. The treatment started when the first symptoms appear takes less time and prevents the death of the vineyard.
When watering the grape should not use sprinkling. Wet leaves are defenseless against pests and cannot resist disease.
If shoots do not grow from the lower eyes, then the rules for the garter of the vine are violated. The fertile arrow cannot be placed vertically. It must be tied horizontally, only in this case the conditions are provided for the growth of all green shoots.
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Grapes (Vitis). Description, types and cultivation of grapes
Grapes (lat Vitis) - genus of plants of the family Grape (Vitaceae), as well as the fruits of these plants, which in mature form are sweet berries.
Grapes - the name of the bush and the fruit of the same name. Grape shoots are called vine.
The grape seed gives a small shoot in the first year after germination. From the buds in the sinus of its leaves, elongated, well-developed shoots grow the next year, and then, next year, each bud of this shoot gives more frail shoots, which freeze to the bottom of their buds by autumn, so that only one bottom shoot remains from such a shoot internode is a shortened escape.
The only bud of a shortened shoot develops powerful elongated shoots in the next growing season, which, in turn, then bring shortened shoots. Elongated shoots bloom and bear fruit, but not shortened. In culture, thanks to a short pruning of grapes, this alternation of shortened and elongated shoots is imperceptible, and the plant blooms and bears fruit every year.
The flowers are small, collected in inflorescences (complex brush or panicle). Depending on the presence of a male and female part in a flower and the degree of their development, the following types of flowers are distinguished:female, male, bisexual, functionally male, functionally female. The last three types are the main ones in grapes. A bisexual flower is characteristic of the vast majority of cultivars.
The grape cluster (brush) consists of a stalk attached to the shoot, a branched crest and stalks ending in pads to which the berries are attached. Bunches of different grape varieties have different sizes, shapes, weights and densities.
Grapes - spherical or ovoid berries, consisting of peel, pulp, vascular bundles and seeds (or without them), collected in more or less loose (rarely dense) clusters. The peel of the berries is covered with a waxy coating that protects it from the effects of adverse external conditions. The color of the berries varies greatly depending on the variety: yellow, greenish, pink, dark blue, purple, black, etc. with different shades. Colorings in most varieties are found in the skin of berries, and the flesh and juice are often colorless.
Grapes - one of the first plants that people began to cultivate. The first mention of grapes dates back to 5-6 millennia BC, then it was grown in Egypt and Mesopotamia. In the future, the culture of grapes spread throughout the world and now vineyards can be found on any continent.
The ancient Greek sailors brought the vine to the Crimea. “Amber and grape yacht” in combination with the beautiful nature of Crimea delighted A.S. Pushkin. Original ancient centers of viticulture arose in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Through the Balkans, the vine penetrated into Moldova. There is a mention that already in the XI century, vineyards were first laid in the monastery farms of Kiev.
100 g of grapes contain:
Water - 80.2 g
Proteins - 0.6 g
Fats - 0.2 g
Carbohydrates - 16.8 g (including mono - and disaccharides - 15 g)
Dietary fiber (fiber) - 0.6 g
Pectin - 0.6 g
Organic acids (tartaric, citric, oxalic, malic, etc.) - 0.84 g
Ash - 0.5 g
Potassium - 255 mg
Calcium - 30 mg
Magnesium - 17 mg
Sodium - 26 mg
Phosphorus - 22 mg
Iron - 600 mcg
Iodine - 8 mcg
Cobalt - 2 mcg
Manganese - 90 mcg
Copper - 80 mcg
Molybdenum - 3 mcg
Fluoride - 12 mcg
Zinc - 91 mcg
100 g of grapes on average contain about 65 kcal.
If you decide to “heal” the grapes, then remember that when consuming large quantities of grapes, you should avoid fatty foods, raw milk, beer, spirits, mineral water, raw vegetables and lots of fruits (diarrhea may appear).
The number of prescribed grapes is strictly individual, but it is necessary to start with small doses (200-300 grams per day), gradually reaching 2-3 kilograms.
Grapes are usually eaten on an empty stomach 1-2 hours before a meal, the course of treatment lasts up to 2 months.
Grape leaves also have healing properties, which contain, like berries, a large set of useful substances. Sugar, quercetin, tannins, tartaric, malic and protocatechuic acids were found in the leaves.
With sore throats, for rinsing, use an infusion of dry grape leaves and for washing with some skin diseases.
With constipation 350 g of vine leaves pour 3 liters of cold water and insist for 3 days. Cold infusion of leaves is used to strengthen vision, with rheumatism.
Also, a decoction of grape leaves alkalizes urine and gradually helps get rid of urate stones in the kidneys. Useful broth and with gout. Sugar-lowering properties are determined for grape leaves - they are successfully used to treat diabetes. It is also believed that grape leaves enhance potency.
With nosebleeds, the dried grape leaf powder is inhaled. They also treat purulent wounds, using as an antiseptic.
With uterine bleeding, grape seeds have a hemostatic effect.
Grape juice is used to treat neurasthenia, hysteria, and functional heart diseases.
Ashes of the vine in a warm form when applied topically removes hemorrhoidal nodes (hemorrhoids).
If you take 1.75 g of ash daily, you can cure an intestinal ulcer, crush kidney stones and a bladder.
The juice secreted during the burning of branches, when used externally, eliminates warts and freckles, depriving them, especially if rubbed with raisins.
If you have no contraindications, eat only grapes for 3-5 days - you will improve your skin, refresh your complexion, cleanse your body, conduct deep drainage of the kidneys and liver, and significantly reduce cellulite.
Grapes should be taken no more than 1.5 kg per day, while it is desirable that it was medium-sweet varieties.
After 3-5 days of eating only grapes, then for 2 weeks you need to have dinner only with grapes, in the amount of about 300 grams of berries.
The use of grapes as a food product, as well as cosmetic, gives excellent results both in the care of one's health and in the care of appearance!
A high-calorie dried product is obtained from grapes - raisins (with seeds) and raisins (without seeds), whose energy value is about 280 kcal per 100 g of product. Raisins and raisins contain an average of 70% sugar (glucose, fructose, sucrose), 1.2% organic acids, they are also rich in minerals, especially potassium (860 mg%) and phosphorus (129 mg%).
Grape varieties intended for drying have berries with a thin skin, high sugar content and moderate acidity. The best grapes for drying raisins are Sabza, Shigani, Husayn, etc. Depending on the grape variety, raisins and raisins are light and dark brown or blue-black. Dried black fine grapes without seeds are called cinnamon. This type of grape is widely used in cooking, especially when baking sweet cookies, pies, cakes and muffins.
Useful properties of raisins
For a long time, raisins have been used in nutrition. Due to the high content of potassium and other valuable substances.
When coughing and bronchitis, it is advised to soak 30 g of raisins in water for 45 minutes and eat with milk in the evenings.
A decoction of raisins with a small amount of onion juice is recommended by traditional medicine as a reliable remedy for coughing, hoarseness.
Also facilitates expectoration of a decoction of 100 g of raisins in a glass of water for 10 minutes. It is necessary to strain the broth, squeeze the berries and drink half or a third of a glass 3-4 times a day. The ancients also believed that raisins are indispensable for all people with nervous diseases.
Work culture and grape care
Caring for grapes is an extremely laborious and complex process. It requires people who do this, great experience and constant effort.
The most important part of the work of the winegrower is planting a vineyard. The accumulated knowledge and traditions show that the productivity of the vine and the quality of the crop can depend on the location of the vineyard. Grape growers must take into account soil characteristics, planting density, quality of grafting material and seedlings. It is necessary to apply fertilizers to improve the natural or acquired richness of the soil, various additives to change its composition or structure, and, if necessary, drainage.
The cultivation of grapes has a dual purpose - to obtain the greatest productivity and the best quality. But the winegrower must choose one thing, because it is very difficult to get high-quality grapes without losing productivity.
Pruning is done in winter in order to ensure the desired productivity of the vineyard, on which the quality of grapes depends. It determines the volume of the future crop (depending on the length of the cut branches). There are many ways to prune, after which the grapes remain free-growing or take the form of a palisade.
Throughout the growth cycle, many other works are carried out that provide the proper conditions for flowering and ripening: connecting shoots, round pruning, which free the bush from thickening foliage and provide the best illumination.
The fight against diseases and parasites is an important part of the work of the winegrower. Grapes - a plant that is sensitive to numerous diseases: cryptogamic (tolerated by fungi) - mildew, oidium, gray rot, or viral - rickety, coagulation ... This plant is also attacked by numerous insects: ticks (often incorrectly called spiders), leaflets and others.
To maintain the grapes “in good shape” special measures are required.
The modern pharmacopoeia has equipped the winegrower with effective means against pests. An integrated technique for combating diseases and insects leads to a reduction in the number of measures applied.