Amaryllis - The most popular of bulb plants. He gave the name to the whole family. The amaryllis includes hippeastrum, and clivia, and wallota, no less popular indoor plants. This flower came to us from South Africa, but at home hybrids are grown that are adapted to our conditions, having significantly larger and brighter flowers.
Amaryllis and hippeastrum are very difficult to distinguish; only experienced flower growers can do it. But there is one significant difference. The amaryllis bulb is rounded and slightly elongated in height, and flattened in the hippeastrum.
Amaryllis is characterized by a pronounced dormant period during which only the bulb dies and remains. During this period, the pot with it is stored at a relatively cool temperature. It is approximately + 10-13 degrees at low humidity. Quite another matter during the growing season. During this period, a temperature of + 20-25 degrees is suitable for amaryllis, that is, normal room temperature. There is a slight nuance.
Tip. In order to achieve the greatest likelihood of the onset of flowering and increase its duration, it is desirable to create such conditions that the night temperature was 5-6 degrees lower than the daytime. In this, amaryllis is similar to phalaenopsis.
During the growing season, amaryllis coverage should be at least 14 hours a day. In this case, the light should be as bright as possible. Like most houseplants, direct sunlight can cause significant damage to amaryllis. Therefore, it is better to place it near the windows of the east or west. When placed near the southern windows, it must be protected from the scorching sun.
Watering, humidity and top dressing
The first time, watering for the sprouted leaves, it is advisable to hold warm water and then carry out only after drying the earth, but make sure that there is no "souring". And in a period of rest do not water at all.
The level of humidity for amaryllis is desirable average. But if the temperature of the content exceeds the recommended one and the air dries up, it is recommended to moisten it.
I do not advise you to spray amaryllis leaves. Limit yourself to wiping the leaves with a damp cloth. To humidify the air, it is better to place a pot of amaryllis on a tray with wet expanded clay or place such a tray next to the plant. In this case, it is better to fill it with wet moss. If desired, you can use any other method of humidification.
Amaryllis is fed only during the growing season. Experienced flower growers, who have in their arsenal many different components for fertilizers, feed him an infusion of mullein. But for beginner growers it is better to use ready-made fertilizers for bulb plants. In this case, be sure to pay attention to the nitrogen content in this fertilizer. It should not be big. Otherwise, the foliage will be lush and flowering sparse.
Preparation for the rest period
This period is very important when growing amaryllis. If a plant is deprived of it, then the bulb will deplete very quickly, and as a result, grow poorly and, of course, worse bloom. Amaryllis should be prepared for the rest period immediately after flowering. Feeding is completely stopped, and watering is gradually reduced in frequency and volume. When the whole aboveground part fades, it is cut off, and the pot with the bulb moves to a cool dry place.
Amaryllis planting and transplanting
The transplant can be carried out either after the flowering of amaryllis, or at the end of the dormant period. On average, a transplant is performed every three years, but if the pot is clearly small, then it is possible earlier. In the intervals between transplants, after a period of rest, it is advisable to renew the top layer of earth in the pot.
Tip. If you are just planning to get amaryllis, then seriously take the choice of bulbs. It should be smooth, without traces of mechanical damage and traces of decay. Be sure to smell her. She should not smell bad. The optimal size of the amaryllis bulb for planting is approximately 7 centimeters.
Also, carefully consider the choice of pot. The aerial part of amaryllis is very heavy and, despite the earthen lump, a light plastic pot can easily roll over. Therefore, it is better to opt for a heavy ceramic pot. Moreover, it passes air to the roots much better. The size of the amaryllis pot directly depends on the size of the bulb. It should be selected in such a way that from the planted in the center of the bulb, from its edge to the edge of the pot was no more than 3 centimeters. Planting in an excessively large pot will slow the flowering period. Amaryllis is often planted in a group of 3 plants in a large pot. In this case, the same rule is observed - the distance between the bulbs should be at least 3 centimeters.
The earth mixture for transplanting and planting amaryllis can be taken ready-made for bulb plants. You can cook it yourself. The components of this soil are simple and affordable.
- Sod land - two parts,
- Sheet land - two parts,
- Humus is one part,
- Sand is one part.
Before planting the amaryllis bulb, thoroughly wash the pot, and even better - sterilize. Also sterilize the land for planting and drainage. Examine the bulb, remove the old dark scales. It is advisable to soak it before planting for 30 minutes in a solution of any fungicide. Then dry.
Plant an amaryllis bulb in such a way that a third of it is above the ground.
Propagation of Amaryllis by Seeds
This method is not particularly popular because of the unreliability and complexity. If you want to try this method, then preference should be given to seeds from your plant, rather than purchased. Of course, if you have your own amaryllis. To obtain seeds, flowers must be pollinated manually. This can be done with a soft brush, transferring pollen from flower to flower. After flowering, a box with seeds should form. When it dries and crack, you can collect the seeds. They are planted in light nutrient soil, and grown as ordinary seedlings. The flowering of amaryllis grown from seeds can be expected in 5 years.
Propagation of amaryllis by daughter bulbs
With normal content of amaryllis on the bulb in small pockets, small bulbs-daughters form. They are carefully separated and landed in a temporary mixture of sand and peat or sand and perlite. When the bulbs of amaryllis grow a little and get stronger, they can be transplanted into a permanent earth mixture. A year after planting, the young bulb should reach a size half as large as the mother. Flowering of amaryllis grown from daughter bulbs can be expected in 3-4 years.
Amaryllis does not bloom
The cause of this unpleasant phenomenon may be several reasons. But they are all the result of improper care and maintenance. The main ones are:
- Lack of rest period,
- The earth in the pot is too dense. In this regard, the roots of amaryllis are poorly developed,
- The bulb is too deep in the ground
- Wrong watering. Potted soil is too wet or too dry.
If your amaryllis does not bloom, then analyze the care of it. And if you identify any of these causes, eliminate it.
Features of growing at home. Briefly
Amaryllis at home is a rather capricious flower, but it will feel comfortable while observing the following maintenance rules:
|Temperature mode||During the period of active growth - no higher than 23 degrees, during rest - about 10.|
|Air humidity||Average, no more than 50%.|
|Lighting||Long bright lighting, diffused sunlight, southern windows.|
|Watering||Afraid of overflow, watering once or twice a week is sufficient, with the exception of the rest period.|
|Priming||A fertile, saturated and moisture-permeable composition with a drainage layer of 3-4 cm is required.|
|Fertilizer and fertilizer||About once a month with liquid fertilizers, with the exception of the resting phase.|
|Amaryllis transplant||It is carried out at the end of the period of rest of the plant every 4-5 years.|
|Breeding||It is possible both with seeds and with the help of bulbs.|
|Growing Features||The cycle of rest of the flower falls at the end of spring - the beginning of summer. In autumn and winter, the plant is sorely lacking light in the apartment; additional illumination is required. The flower bulb is poisonous, all work should be carried out with gloves.|
The most popular species grown by gardeners. The green stalk of the plant reaches 50 cm. Leaves, 3 cm wide and 50 cm long, retain the green color all winter, they are arranged in pairs. Leaf plates appear in the fall, die off at the end of spring. The plant goes into a dormant state. In August-September, the bulb (its diameter is 5-10 cm) produces a bare peduncle, sometimes there can be two.
An umbrella-shaped inflorescence consists of 2-12 funnel-shaped flowers. Each individual flower has 6 petals, flower size from 6 to 10 cm. Coloring can be different - white, pink, red and even purple. Peduncles have a pleasant, delicate aroma.
Before planting in a flowerpot, the bulb is freed from decayed areas, disinfected in a weak solution of manganese, and if there were cuts, they are sprinkled with crushed coal. In prepared soil the onion is deepened so that one third or even half of it remains above the soil surface. This measure will avoid the death of the bulbs and flower arrows. Watering only a planted plant is best through a pan.
When planting in open ground, a place is selected where the soil is rich in humus. Amaryllis, planted closer to summer, will gain strength for flowering and will grow more children than its potted counterpart.
Very often, the amaryllis plant at home is confused with a hippeastrum flower. The main differences of amaryllis, according to which it can be easily recognized:
- flower petals are narrower and not terry,
- the number of flowers on each of the peduncles is from 6 to 12, while hippeastrums have no more than 6,
- a small onion is a maximum of 6 cm in diameter, babies appear between her scales,
- the flower stalk is dense but not hollow.
As a rule, the flowering of amaryllis occurs in the last days of summer or early autumn. These are beautiful inflorescences of white, as well as all shades of pink and red, often two-tone with stripes. The plant blooms in a leafless state for about 8 weeks. Old bulbs older than 15 years old will not bloom.
Amaryllis Paradisicola (Amaryllis Sarniensis)
Amaryllis Paradisicola (Amaryllis Sarniensis)
This type of amaryllis in nature grows on stony dry areas in the mountains. Flowers on one leafless peduncle blooms up to 21 pieces. The flowers are deep pink in color, have a strong aroma. As a room culture is not grown.
Breeders made a lot of efforts to develop unusual varieties of amaryllis. Work in the field of selection is carried out in three directions:
- growing large flowers,
- getting flowers with interesting colors,
- breeding varieties with a flower shape different from the parent.
In room conditions with normal humidity, the plant does not need regular spraying. This measure is only necessary if the room has rather dry air and the soil dries instantly. In the resting phase, when the flower should be dry, you can lightly spray the soil every 20 days to prevent the earth from completely drying out.
Caring for amaryllis in indoor conditions to a greater extent consists in providing the plant with regular daily illumination of at least 16 hours. These flowers are always drawn to the sun, but since their growing season falls on the coldest periods, it is often the lack of natural sunlight that does not allow flower stalks to develop.
Amaryllis feels comfortable on the south and south-east windows.
As soon as a flower in the resting phase appears a flower arrow measuring 5-10 cm - this means that the dormant period is over, and the plant can be watered more often and more abundantly. To avoid overfilling, it is better to apply soft moisturizing through the pallet.
If watering in the usual way - you should always drain excess water, otherwise stagnation of moisture will lead to rotting of the roots.
The flower container for this plant should be massive, stable, elongated, with a length of at least 20 cm. Usually, amaryllis grows an impressive root system, so shallow wide pots simply will not allow the leaves and then the flower stalk to fully develop.
When transplanted into a more spacious container, its diameter should increase by only 2-3 cm. In such "cramped" conditions, amaryllis bloom much more readily.
The soil for amaryllis should include a large number of nutrient components. The best option would be a substrate of the following composition: turf, leaf, humus soil with an admixture of sand in equal parts. With an obligatory 3-cm drainage layer made of pebbles, expanded clay or brick chips.
You can also use universal ground for bulb flowers.
Fertilizer and fertilizer
Feeding is carried out during the growing season. The alternation of mineral and organic fertilizers, which are applied at a frequency of once a month, is recommended. As organics, solutions of mullein and bird droppings are used.
Mineral fertilizers should contain more phosphorus and potassium. Soil rich in nitrogen - on the contrary, can harm the plant. During the rest, feeding amaryllis is not required.
Amaryllis transplant is carried out after flowering and withering of the flower stalk. As a rule, only the top 3 cm of soil is replaced once a year, saturating the earth with nutrients. A full flower transplant is carried out every 3-4 years. Key points for proper transplantation of amaryllis:
- A few days before the procedure, the plant is watered abundantly.
- When a flower is brought out of the pot, the root system is carefully examined, and decayed damaged areas are removed.
- Sections or other places with defects are treated with a disinfectant solution or sprinkled with activated carbon.
- Daughter sprouts are separated from the bulb. If they are not removed, then the flower will put all its strength into the development of children, in this case there will be no flowering.
- Prepared soil for two-thirds of the flowerpot is laid in a deep pot with a 3 cm drainage layer.
- A 2 cm layer of sand is poured under the onion of the flower and around it the remaining amount of earth is sprinkled in such a way that only the bottom covers itself.
Such measures will help strengthen the rotten, damaged or simply "tired" bulb. The plant will soon be updated and begin active development.
Indoor amaryllis does not need to cut dried leaves, since in the process of dying off all the useful substances from them pass into the bulb, creating a reserve for the next flowering. If half-withered leaves stand for a long time and do not die off naturally, they are carefully bent or cut off at the very base of the bulb.
Amaryllis after flowering
After flowering and wilting of inflorescences, a period of dormancy begins. Its proper preparation for this condition will extend the life of the flower for a longer time. First of all, the peduncle is carefully cut from the base of the bulb. Watering is gradually reduced, since a non-flowering plant absorbs much less moisture.
The plant is placed in a cool, shaded place and for 2-3 months it is not disturbed either by watering (quite a rare spraying of the top layer of the soil), or by top dressing. As soon as a new sprout or flower arrow begins to break through, this is a sign of the end of the resting phase of the flower.The plant is placed in a warmer and brighter room, transferred to a slightly larger pot.
Growing amaryllis from seeds
This method of breeding imposes its characteristics on the grown amaryllis:
- varietal qualities of the flower are not preserved,
- the bulb does not age longer,
- the plant produces flowers only after 5-6 years.
For this type of propagation, seeds freshly collected from flower boxes are used. Their germination after collection lasts up to 5 weeks, drying is also not recommended, otherwise the percentage of successfully germinated seeds is lost.
Sown in moist nutrient soil, consisting of sod and humus soil (one part) in combination with a mixture of sheet soil and sand (2 parts each). Seeds are sprinkled only slightly - with a layer of no more than 5 mm. Favorable temperature - 23-25 degrees. After 8 weeks, the first shoots can be expected.
When two leaves appear in the seedling, it is transplanted into a 100 ml pot.
A simpler method is the propagation of a flower by daughter bulbs. They are carefully separated from the mother plant during transplantation and planted in the soil of the same composition as the adult plant. Young amaryllis develop quite actively and in two years reach the level of the maternal bulb. Bloom in the second or third year after planting.
Why does not bloom
Amaryllis is a rather rare plant in indoor floriculture and most often among lovers there is its more compliant fellow - hippeastrum. But still, if you have this rare specimen of a flower that refuses to bloom, there may be the following reasons:
- too spacious a pot in which a flower actively grows children, and there are already not enough resources for flowering,
- lack of essential nutrients
- lack of lighting during the growing season,
- lack of a phase of rest,
- the presence of fungal diseases or parasites.
Diseases and Pests
Common diseases and problems of growing a plant:
- Amaryllis leaves wither and fade due to the process of decay,
- Blackening of flowers caused by high humidity in the room in combination with low temperatures,
- Slowly growing and falling leaves as a result of a lesion by an amaryllis worm,
- White spots on leaves and stems - a sign of the appearance of such a parasite as a mealy worm,
- Rotting bulbs occurs after infection with a daffodil fly or an onion tick,
- Brown spots on leaves causes a pest - a false shield,
- Leaves turn yellow Amaryllis occurs with excessive soil moisture, as well as with the appearance of aphids.
Other pests are thrips, mealy bugs.
Amaryllis belladonna, the second name is beautiful amaryllis (Amaryllis belladonna).
Until recently, it was defined as the only type of amaryllis. This variety is characterized by bulbs with a diameter of 8-10 cm and leafless peduncles 60-70 cm in size. The plant has six-petalled inflorescences of cream, pink and lilac tones with a pleasant aroma.
Popular varieties of amaryllis:
“Durban” - is distinguished by bell-shaped flowers with a white center at the base,
"Parker" - the most popular plant color - deep pink with a yellow core,
"Faith" - light pink flowers with pearlescent coating,
"Snow Queen" - white inflorescences with cream color on the edges,
"Grandior" - a variety of unusual colors with a gradient transition from dark pink to white,
"Red Lion" - flowers of a rich purple hue,
"Minerva" - red flowers with a white center in the shape of a star.
The listed varieties are only a small part, there are at least 90 varieties of this plant.
Amaryllis Red Lion
Amaryllis Red Lion
This variety has a second name - “red lion”. Bright red large inflorescence blooms on a green peduncle. On one flower arrow, whose height is 50 cm, 3 or 4 flowers bloom. This is one of the favorite varieties of gardeners. The plant creates a festive atmosphere indoors when it is still winter outside. Gorgeous flowers attract the eye, their color is similar to the setting winter sun setting over the horizon.
The bulbous perennial has linear leaf plates, whose length is about 70 cm. The peduncle grows to a height of 70-80 centimeters. The diameter of the flower can reach 25 cm. Terry flowers of white color on the edges have a pink border.
A perennial 50 cm tall with a narrow stalk attracts attention with the unusual color of the flower. Terry large flower (diameter 15-25 cm) of snow-white color has pink-raspberry interspersed in the center. The oval-shaped petals are pointed, a bright raspberry fringing appears along their edges.
One of the most beautiful varieties of amaryllis. Perennial height from 50 to 70 cm. Large red flowers with satin petals bloom on the flower arrow. It can bloom in any season, it all depends on the planting period. The plant is grown not only in indoor conditions, but also in open ground in regions with warm climatic conditions in the winter.
The main difference from other amaryllis is the unique color of the flowers. On one arrow, whose height is about 70 cm, there are no completely identical flowers in color. Pink and cherry stripes and reddish strokes diverge against the white background of the petal, their size is different, the arrangement is arbitrary. There are flowers with fully painted red petals.
On a sixty-centimeter peduncle, large red flowers bloom. In the center of the petals there is a white strip, from which thin rays of the same color depart. The flower seems to glow from the inside. The greenish core of the flower makes the flower even more expressive.
Amaryllis Exotica (Amaryllis Exotica)
Amaryllis Exotica (Amaryllis Exotica)
The new onion hybrid has an unusual floral color. Large flowers, similar to asterisks, bloom on a thickened arrow 40 cm long. The size of the flower will surprise even sophisticated gardeners: the diameter reaches 20-22 cm. The color is three-colored: petals of white or peach color, orange in the center, the middle part of the flower is greenish. Wide petals have an oblong-oval shape, pointed to the tips. In the inflorescence, 3-4 flowers are collected, which have a delicate aroma. Flowering occurs in the winter months.
Belt-shaped leaves have a rich green color. Bulb is large (diameter 10 cm), round, can produce 2-3 peduncles.
Perennial with lush terry inflorescences similar in shape to peonies. The flower stalk is about 45 cm long. One bulb can produce up to three arrows, each of which has 3-4 flowers with a diameter of 22 to 25 cm. The flower looks like a magnificent ball due to the large number of petals: there are 12 to 14. On a cream the background of the petals clearly shows red strokes and stripes.
The main difference from other varietal species of amaryllis is narrow petals that have a motley color. A pale pink shade of the petals turns into a deep pink. The pharynx is yellow-green in color.
You can prepare the soil mixture for the flower yourself: mix peat crumbs, sand, humus in equal amounts, add turf and leaf soil. Pour the prepared mixture with boiling water. You can buy ready-made soil for bulb plants.
Amaryllis needs good lighting during growth, with the exception of the direct rays of the sun, which can cause burns on leaf plates. In July, a dormant period begins, which lasts until October, at which time the plant must be removed to a cool, dark place. The ideal place would be a cellar.
Perennial should be watered with settled water at room temperature. This should be done when the soil layer has dried out. It is better to carry out watering through a pallet, and you can top it without getting on the bulb. At rest, watering should be reduced to a minimum in order to avoid acidification of the earthen substrate.
Fertilizer and fertilizing
During dormancy, the exotic does not need to be fed, which cannot be said about the period of growth and preparation for flowering. Mullein is used as fertilizer, it is bred in water in a ratio of 1:10. Top dressing is carried out once every 10 days.
Perennials are recommended to be replanted every 2-3 years. You can carry out this procedure annually, this will make it possible to track the condition of the bulb. Amaryllis flowering depends on the correct transplant.
It is better to transplant bulbs before the end of the dormant period.
The flower capacity should be deep, as bulky roots grow from the bulb. Moreover, a light pot can tip over under the weight of the flowers. But the pot should not be too wide: its width depends on the diameter of the bulb. The optimal distance from the side wall to the bulb is 2.5-3 cm.
In a wide pot, a flower bulb will actively grow small bulbs, because of this the plant may not bloom at all. It is better to use a ceramic container, it will provide the root system with oxygen.
A good layer of drainage is placed at the bottom of the pot. The bulb should not be deeply buried in the soil: it is covered with a substrate to a height of two-thirds.
Pruning is necessary for amaryllis in order to facilitate the transition to the resting stage. With yellowing and wilting of leaves, they are cut completely.
About eight months, amaryllis is in the growing season. The bulb for such a time period spends its energy on releasing a strong, juicy flower stalk, which blooms for 2-3 weeks. Then there is a build-up of large enough leaves. After such active growth, the perennial needs time to restore strength in order to again prepare for a new flowering cycle.
The dormant period usually begins in mid-September, the vegetation process stops, the amaryllis is preparing to dump all the foliage that it has grown. It is difficult to go to a state of rest independently, the flower grower should help him in this.
It will tell you about the onset of the foliage rest period: the bright green color will lose its color, the leaves will begin to fade. It is at this time that it is necessary to accelerate the transition of the plant to the resting stage. Watering is gradually reduced to a minimum. The flower pot should be moved to a room with a lower temperature: not higher than +15 degrees. A perennial should overwinter in the absence of light, in a dry room: air humidity should not be high. The ideal place for wintering is the basement, pantry.
If the plant "does not rest" and continues to form leaves, this will weaken the bulb, the amaryllis will cease to bloom.
Many gardening lovers leave the bulb in a pot for a rest period, rearranging it to another more suitable place. According to the rules, it must be removed from the tank with soil. Carefully clean the roots of the earth, check their condition: cut off damaged and dried parts. Then the bulb is sent to restore strength in a cool dark room for 3-5 months. To protect the planting material from infections, the bulbs can be held for several minutes in a weak solution of manganese, then dried well. Wrap each with a tissue or toilet paper, put in storage. Once every half a month, the bulbs are inspected to prevent any damage.
When reproducing amaryllis at home, you need to be patient. The perennial will produce the first flowers only in the third year, if at the same time its “place of residence” has not changed.
There are several methods of reproduction.
To obtain seeds, you need to use a brush to collect pollen from the stamens of one inflorescence and transfer it to the stigma of another flower. It takes 30 days to ripen the seeds. They are collected and immediately planted in a nutrient substrate, consisting of turf and leaf soil with the addition of humus.
Seeds deepen into the soil by 0.5 cm, moisturize. The temperature of the soil substrate should not drop below + 20 degrees. When the first three leaves appear, the seedlings are transplanted into separate containers.
The easiest method is the vegetative one: separating the children from the mother’s bulb. From an adult bulb grow small children with roots. They are planted in a separate small container for rooting. Growing bulbs are transplanted into larger pots. Young amaryllis blooms in its third year. A rest period is not required until the first flowering.
Cut off the top of the bulb with leaves, without digging it. Make 4 vertical incisions to the soil, dividing the bulb into equal parts. Sprinkle slices with ash or charcoal powder. Insert wooden sticks between them. For germination it is necessary to create certain conditions: diffused light, air temperature + 25 degrees, watering. When the first leaf appears, the young plant is planted in a separate pot.
Proper care of the plant guarantees its annual flowering. The appearance of amaryllis will tell the grower about errors in care:
- the leaves began to turn yellow, which means that watering is too frequent and excessive,
- the leaf plates darken and then rot - water does not leak through the drainage, it stagnates in the soil,
- the color of the foliage turns pale, the flowers wilt - the air is too humid, excessive watering,
- perennial inflorescences fade - direct sunlight falls on the flowers. To pritenit a flower or to move to another place where the light is diffused.
- Amaryllis does not bloom - there is no rest period for the exotic or the capacity for planting is too wide.
How is amaryllis different from hippeastrum?
Amaryllis is often confused with hippeastrum. There really is a similarity between them: long lanceolate leaves, a flower-bearing stem, large-sized flowers.
What is their difference?
- The main difference in the peduncle. The stem of the amaryllis is hollow, crimson, its length (in some varieties) reaches 90 cm. The stem of the hippeastrum is much smaller, not hollow inside, its color is green, crimson-gray and even brown.
- Flowers differ in size and aroma. Hippeastrum has larger flowers (up to 22 cm in diameter) than amaryllis (9 to 13 cm). The number in the inflorescence is also different: in hippeastrum - from 2 to 4 flowers, and in amaryllis - from 6 to 12. The flower of amaryllis is funnel-shaped, in hippeastrum - orchid-like. Amaryllis flowers have a significant aroma, hippeastrum has a weak aroma, and in some varieties it is completely absent.
- During the year, amaryllis blooms once, hippeastrum - twice.
- The shape of the bulbs is different. In amaryllis, pear-shaped, covered with scales that are pubescent on the inside, its maximum size is 12 cm. The bulb of a hippeastrum is round in shape, like an onion, its size does not exceed 9 cm.
Blooming amaryllis will create a festive atmosphere in any room. It looks great in a bouquet, with it make up a variety of floral arrangements. Caring for an exotic plant is not difficult, even a beginner grower can do it.