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MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERCCOTTUS GLENII DYBOWSKI ROTANA-TOTAL, 1877 FROM THE MELORIATIVE CHANNEL OF THE SWIMMING POOL

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Rotan fish (Latin name Perccottus glenii) is the only representative of the firebrand genus in nature, which belong to the family of firefish in the class of radiant fish. Therefore, many lovers, and sometimes even experts call this inhabitant of freshwater ponds a rotan firebrand or just a firebrake. This species of fish is interesting for its appearance and behavior. Therefore, it makes sense to dwell on its description in detail.

Description

Rotan prefers to settle in standing ponds, artificial ponds and even swamps. It is not too picky about the environment, in particular, the amount of oxygen in the water. Fish can survive the complete drying or freezing of the lake, buried in the bottom silt. She does not migrate through water bodies and spawns in the same place where she was born.

This representative of ichthyofauna feeds on animal food. The basis of his diet is benthos, but he also uses zooplankton. Fish can eat larvae and fry of other species, caviar. Despite its small size, rotan consumes a large amount of food.

Habitat

Previously considered species was distributed exclusively in the eastern part of Russia, Northern China. The initial habitat is as follows:

  • the lower and middle reaches of the Amur River,
  • Hanka Lake,
  • Suifun and Tumannaya rivers.

Recently, this fish has been actively imported by fishers and aquarists in the European part of Russia. It can be found in reservoirs near Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kaliningrad, Nizhny Novgorod. Rotan is also observed in the Ivankovo, Saratov and Kuibyshev reservoirs.

Fishermen also note the presence of fish in isolated bodies of water (quarries, ponds), where enthusiasts brought them.

Body structure

In its external characteristics, the rotan is a bit like a goby. His body is slightly elongated in length, in the front part a little rough, compressed to the tail fin laterally. The head is large and flattened from above and below, occupying less than a third of the whole body.

The mouth has a finite structure, large in size and wide. The lower jaw is strongly advanced, and the upper reaches to the vertical axis of the eyes. The body is covered with medium-sized scales. The color of the back is black-green, the sides have a yellow tint and are covered with a large number of brown spots of an indefinite shape.

The maximum length of a rotan can be up to 25 cm, but the average fish rarely grows more than 12 cm.

Behavior features

Perccottus glenii reaches puberty at 3 years of age, when its body length is 6 cm. During spawning, males change their appearance by putting on a “mating outfit”. Their body acquires a very dark color, and the dorsal fin is covered with small white spots.

The fertility of one female is up to a thousand eggs. Fish spawns in portions, starting in April. The water temperature should be at least 15 degrees Celsius. The female spawns eggs on various objects at the bottom - stones, flooded driftwood and algae leaves. The eggs are elongated, measuring 3 by 1 mm. At one end there are villi, thanks to which they are fixed on various objects.

The male protects the eggs during the entire incubation period. Hatched larvae have a size of up to 5 mm and at the initial stage they eat plankton.

Fishing value

Fish has no commercial value. Previously, in the places of the original habitat of rotan, it was captured and used as food for pets. Now this fish is caught only by amateur fishermen. The stock of rotan is not threatened with extinction or even reduction. In many reservoirs, it multiplies rapidly, inhibiting local fish species.

Abstract of a scientific article in biological sciences, author of a scientific paper - Irina I. Obukhovich, Victor Kazimirovich Rizevsky, Nikolay Aleksandrovich Lebedev

The morphometric characteristics of the head rotan Perccottus glenii, captured in October 2009 in the reclamation canal near the village of Bolshye Avtyuki, Kalinkovichi district of the Gomel region, are presented. The material is represented by sexually mature individuals — 60 specimens; the length of the body without a caudal fin — 67.3–108.5 mm. 27 plastic and 12 meristic features were analyzed. Significant differences between males and females are shown for two plastic characters. The obtained data are compared with the data of other authors. Significant differences were revealed for 8 plastic characters in the rotan-firebrands of the studied reservoir and ponds in Minsk.

Similar topics of scientific works in biological sciences, author of scientific work - Obukhovich Irina Ivanovna, Rizevsky Viktor Kazimirovich, Lebedev Nikolay Alexandrovich

The article is devoted to the morphometric description of Perccottus Glenii, which was caught in October 2009 in the land – reclamation canal near the village Bolshye Avtuki, Kalinkovichi district, Gomel region. The material is presented by pubertal even – aged species - 60 specimens with the length of the body without caudal fin - 67.3–108.5 mm. 27 plastic and 12 meristic signs are analysed. Reliable distinctions between he – fish and she – fish on two plastic signs are shown. The comparison of the data obtained with the data of other researchers is conducted. Authentic distinctions on 8 plastic signs of the Perccottus Glenii of the researched reservoir and of the Perccottus Glenii of the ponds of Minsk are revealed.

The text of the scientific work on the theme "MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROTANA-TOLERA PERCCOTTUS GLENII DYBOWSKI, 1877 FROM THE MELIOORATIVE CHANNEL OF THE POOL p. Pripyat

I. I. Obukhovich, N. A. Lebedev, V. K. Rizevsky

MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PERCCOTTUS GLENIIDYBOWSKI ROTANA-TOTAL, 1877 FROM THE MELORIATIVE CHANNEL OF THE POOL p. Pripyat

The morphometric characteristics of the head rotan Perccottus glenii, captured in October 2009 in the reclamation canal near the village of Bolshye Avtyuki, Kalinkovichi district of the Gomel region, are presented. The material is represented by sexually mature individuals of -60 ind., The length of the body without a caudal fin is 67.3-108.5 mm. 27 plastic and 12 meristic features were analyzed. Significant differences between males and females are shown for two plastic characters. The obtained data are compared with the data of other authors. Significant differences were revealed for 8 plastic characters in the rotan-firebrands of the studied reservoir and ponds in Minsk.

Biological invasions along with pollution of water bodies and regulation of river flow lead to significant changes in the structure of freshwater ichthyofauna. A good example of the biological invasion of freshwater fish species is the spread in the water bodies of Belarus of the head-rotan Perccottus glenii (Perciformes: Odontobutidae). The natural range of this species includes the Far East of Russia, northeast of China and the north of North Korea, the lower and middle reaches of the Amur, Sungari, Ussuri and Lake. Hanka. In the middle of the twentieth century. from the river basin Amur this species has been introduced to various regions of Eurasia. Since the 90s. XX century in connection with human activities there is a rapid spread of this species in the reservoirs of south-eastern Europe -. According to a number of scientific papers, this species is able to have a significant negative effect on the biotic component of freshwater ecosystems of the acquired range -.

The first information from scientific literary sources about the presence of firebrand in the water bodies of Belarus and its morphological features dates back to 1996. According to the authors, the head-rotan appeared in the reservoirs of Belarus (ponds in Minsk, the Svisloch river basin) back in the 1970s. However, a comprehensive study of it in Belarus began only in 2008, when we conducted studies on the distribution and biological characteristics of this alien species in the water bodies of the republic.

The purpose of this work is to identify the morphometric features of the firebrand rotan from the reclamation channel near the village of Bolshie Avtyuki, Kalinkovichi district, Gomel region.

Material and research technique. Fish were caught in October 2009 in the reclamation canal near the village of Bolshie Avtyuki, Kalinkovichi District (Figure 1). This watercourse is associated with the river. Dymarka (the left tributary of the Zakovanka River, the basin of the Pripyat River).

Figure 1 - Reclamation canal near the village of Bolshoi Avtuki (Kalinkovichi district)

VESNІK МДПУ іня І. P. SHAMYAKINA

The banks of the canal are natural, silty-sandy soil (in some places siltation reaches 30 cm and higher), aquatic vegetation is well developed. Due to the high siltiness and a slight slope (Figure 1), the flow in the channel is weak.

The material was collected on a channel section 250-300 m long at a depth of 30 cm to 1 m. As a fishing gear, a landing net with a metal frame 40 x 50 cm in size was used. The mesh size was 8 mm.

Caught fish were fixed by freezing. The weight, gender, and age of the individuals were determined. Age was determined by the scales of the fish. Morphometric measurements were carried out in laboratory conditions according to the generally accepted method. The results were processed statistically: the arithmetic mean (M), its error (m), the boundaries of the variation of the attributes (Lim) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated. When assessing differences in characters between males and females of the studied sample, as well as when comparing the plastic characters of the head-rotan head of the Kalinkovichi district and ponds in Minsk, a two-sample t-test for independent samples (tst) was used. Gender differences were considered significant at significance level p Can't find what you need? Try the literature selection service.

V ram. 4-6 5.05 ± 0.05 0.15

P an ram. 1-2 1.35 ± 0.06 0.23

P ram. 14-17 15.22 ± 0.10 0.58

sp. br. 9-13 10.30 ± 0.12 0.86

squ. 36-41 37.92 ± 0.15 1.87

vt 28-30 29.35 ± 0.08 0.40

Comparison of the obtained data with the data of other authors (see,,,) showed that the absolute values ​​of the meristic signs of the head rotanas of the studied watercourse are closest to those of the head rotan from ponds in Minsk (table 2). The table shows a complete coincidence for 4 out of 10 indicators used for comparison, and another 2 indicators were the closest in values. It should be noted the relatively high number of unbranched rays in the first dorsal fin. The same variation of this feature was shown by A. G. Scriabin in the analysis of two samples taken from the delta of the r. Selenga and Ambassadorial litter lake. Baikal.

The number of branched rays in the anal fin of the rotan-firebrand of the studied watercourse is less than indicated by all other authors. For the first time for him we noted 6 branching rays in the anal fin. Other authors showed a lower absolute value of the number of scales in the longitudinal row. We first revealed a variation in the number of branching rays in the abdominal fin and noted such absolute values ​​of this trait as 4 and 6. According to literature, we know that only 5 branching rays were noted in the abdominal fin.

Table 2 - Meristic signs of rotan-firebrand, according to various authors

Posted by I D II D A P V sp. br squ.

Berg L.S. VI-VIII I-II 9-11 I-III 7-10 - I 5 - 36-43

Kirpichnikov V.S. VI-VII I-II 9-11 I-III 7-10 - - - 37-41

Scriabin A.G. VI-IX. 9-13. 8-12 13-18 - 9-13 36-46

Rizevsky V.K. et al. VI-VIII I-II 9-13 I-II 8-12 15-19 I 5 9-12 36-42

Our data VI-IX I-II 9-13 I-II 6-11 15-18 * I 4-6 9-13 36-41

* Note - branched and unbranched rays in the pectoral fins are combined for convenience

When characterizing the plastic signs of the head rotan, we separately considered males and females (table 3), as a number of authors (,,) indicate sexual dimorphism according to these indicators.

VESNІK МДПУ іня І. P. SHAMYAKINA

Table 3 - Values ​​of plastic indicators of rotan-firebrands of the Kalinkovichi district (Pripyat river basin)

Sign Male (n = 35) Female (n = 25) tst

Lim M ± m CV Lim M ± m CV

ad (mm) 67.30-108.50 81.17 ± 1.51 79.45 69.00-97.90 82.05 ± 1.39 48.09 -0.41 *

Pd 60.98-69.59 64.36 ± 0.31 3.37 61.83-69.79 64.82 ± 0.33 2.67 -0.99

aP 34.91-41.89 38.61 ± 0.29 2.89 35.80-42.12 38.54 ± 0.23 1.31 0.17

s' 6.58-10.04 7.98 ± 0.14 0.71 6.44-10.28 8.07 ± 0.17 0.69 -0.43

ll '18.52-23.96 21.34 ± 0.27 2.61 18.35-24.48 21.66 ± 0.33 2.71 -0.74

an 8.92-12.79 10.58 ± 0.14 0.70 9.55-13.24 10.90 ± 0.18 0.81 -1.42

no 5.97-8.85 6.75 ± 0.12 0.55 5.78-8.70 7.04 ± 0.18 0.78 -1.37

° p 20.38-25.00 22.77 ± 0.19 1.24 20.68-23.58 22.15 ± 0.18 0.81 2.32

Dh 25.03-32.21 27.74 ± 0.30 3.25 25.37-30.69 27.64 ± 0.28 1.90 0.22

kk '10.74-13.38 12.06 ± 0.12 0.50 10.95-13.72 12.05 ± 0.14 0.50 0.03

fd 24.46-30.63 27.36 ± 0.27 2.62 24.73-29.59 27.04 ± 0.24 1.40 0.82

aD 40.74-57.30 44.32 ± 0.46 7.25 40.43-48.13 43.46 ± 0.35 3.01 1.39

rd 43.56-52.11 47.83 ± 0.35 4.34 43.64-51.58 48.04 ± 0.43 4.61-0.39

aV 34.26-44.58 37.70 ± 0.40 5.52 32.84-40.91 36.13 ± 0.38 3.64 2.74

aA 55.68-62.80 59.06 ± 0.35 4.27 53.13-62.68 59.48 ± 0.41 4.13 -0.78

VA 22.12-26.87 24.14 ± 0.20 1.38 21.15-29.79 25.03 ± 0.40 3.98 -2.16

Dj 10.55-16.15 13.03 ± 0.22 1.75 10.76-15.01 12.92 ± 0.23 1.27 0.35

xD '13.67-19.53 16.42 ± 0.21 1.54 14.03-20.31 16.55 ± 0.32 2.51 -0.36

jx 1.23-9.34 2.80 ± 0.23 1.79 0.72-4.05 2.59 ± 0.16 0.62 0.71

ee '12.68-16.35 14.43 ± 0.15 0.75 12.48-15.95 14.40 ± 0.18 0.81 0.11

zz '11.87-21.69 17.76 ± 0.30 3.11 13.87-20.48 17.59 ± 0.29 2.09 0.39

Pp '21.96-27.53 24.45 ± 0.21 1.56 21.89-26.40 24.51 ± 0.28 1.96 -0.18

Pi 8.93-13.13 10.59 ± 0.14 0.70 8.20-12.40 10.11 ± 0.20 0.99 2.02

Vv '13.74-18.88 16.11 ± 0.22 1.76 9.91-19.25 16.45 ± 0.46 5.28 -0.72

Af '11.71-15.44 13.37 ± 0.17 1.00 9.62-16.85 13.01 ± 0.29 2.17 1.12

mm '12.96-19.17 15.96 ± 0.22 1.67 13.67-18.44 16.10 ± 0.22 1.17 -0.44

* Note - the “-” sign before the criterion value indicates a lower value of the compared

signs in males, tst values ​​are indicated in bold, reliable at p Can't find what you need? Try the literature selection service.

Table 4 - Comparative characteristics of the plastic traits of the head-rotan (in% of the body length without C) from the reclamation channel of the Kalinkovichi district (the Pripyat river basin) and the ponds of Minsk (the Svisloch river basin)

Sign Channel (our data) (n = 34) Ponds of Minsk (n = 25) tst

Lim M ± m CV Lim M ± m CV

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

pd 60.98-69.59 64.93 ± 0.31 3.21 59.3-68.4 64.91 ± 0.47 3.59 0.03

ap 34.91-41.89 38.41 ± 0.28 2.57 35.5-40.0 38.10 ± 0.21 2.70 2.00

s' 6.44-10.04 8.00 ± 0.13 0.57 4.2-6.3 5.43 ± 0.13 11.79 14.03

ll '18.35-24.48 21.51 ± 0.28 2.64 17.5-20.6 19.06 ± 0.15 3.88 7.75

an 8.92-12.20 10.59 ± 0.15 0.73 9.9-12.3 10.90 ± 0.12 5.50 -1.64 *

no 6.13-8.85 7.07 ± 0.15 0.77 6.5-9.7 7.34 ± 0.14 9.26 -1.29

op 20.38-25.00 22.34 ± 0.20 1.41 19.9-22.8 21.47 ± 0.14 3.31 3.50

Dh 25.03-32.21 27.68 ± 0.28 2.63 25.7-31.1 28.76 ± 0.28 4.83 -2.75

kk '10.95-13.72 12.07 ± 0.12 0.51 12.5-14.7 13.26 ± 0.11 4.00 -7.21

VESNІK МДПУ іня І. P. SHAMYAKINA

Continuation of table 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

fd 24.69-30.63 27.49 ± 0.26 2.39 21.5-25.2 23.28 ± 0.20 4.25 12.68

aD 40.74-57.30 44.05 ± 0.47 7.43 43.1-47.6 45.25 ± 0.21 2.32 -2.35

rd 44.60-51.58 48.14 ± 0.33 3.62 41.8-50.4 45.67 ± 0.39 4.27 4.85

aV 32.84-44.58 37.41 ± 0.43 6.39 35.8-39.3 37.33 ± 0.17 2.28 0.16

aA 55.68-62.50 59.11 ± 0.33 3.67 59.2-63.5 61.39 ± 0.23 1.87 -5.70

VA 22.12-29.79 24.59 ± 0.27 2.48 23.7-28.4 26.06 ± 0.24 4.53 -4.07

Dj 10.55-16.15 13.10 ± 0.22 1.64 10.6-15.7 12.80 ± 0.27 10.39 0.87

xD '13.67-19.53 16.43 ± 0.22 1.67 16.2-24.3 19.03 ± 0.34 8.72 -6.41

jx 0.72-9.34 2.71 ± 0.25 2.08 0.0-5.3 2.94 ± 0.30 51.36 -0.58

ee '12.48-16.35 14.49 ± 0.17 0.97 12.7-16.9 14.71 ± 0.23 7.75 -0.76

zz '11.87-21.69 17.62 ± 0.28 2.71 15.6-22.1 18.39 ± 0.32 8.59 -1.80

pp '21.96-27.53 24.43 ± 0.25 2.08 20.0-25.5 23.08 ± 0.29 6.20 3.55

Pi 8.93-12.08 10.48 ± 0.15 0.75 7.9-11.0 9.72 ± 0.14 7.00 3.73

Vv '9.91-19.13 16.37 ± 0.33 3.76 12.9-18.7 16.20 ± 0.26 7.96 0.41

Af '9.62-15.44 13.07 ± 0.19 1.29 12.8-16.2 14.18 ± 0.17 5.92 -4.27

mm '12.96-18.44 16.02 ± 0.20 1.41 14.5-18.8 16.60 ± 0.22 6.51 -1.93

* Note - the “-” sign in front of the criterion value indicates a lower value of the compared trait in individuals from the channel, tst values ​​are indicated in bold, reliable at p Can't find what you need? Try the literature selection service.

15. Pravdin, I. F. Guidance on the study of fish / I. F. Pravdin, ed. K.M.Deryugina. 3rd ed. - L.: Publ. Leningra. state University, 1939 .-- 246 p.

16. Rokitsky, P. F. Fundamentals of variation statistics for biologists / P. F. Rokitsky. - Minsk: Publ. BSU, 1961 .-- 224 p.

17. Assessment of the deformation of the body shape of fish as a result of fixation in formalin by geometric morphometric methods / S. A. Mandritsa // Biology and Ecology of Prikamye: Interuniversity. Sat scientific tr / Perm. University, E. A. Zinoviev et al. - Issue. 2. - Perm, 2008 .-- S. 41-56.

18. Kirpichnikov, V. S. Biology of Percottus glehni Dyb. (Eleotridae) and the prospects for its use in the fight against Japanese encephalitis and malaria / V. S. Kirpichnikov // Bull. MOIP. - 1945. - No. 50 (5-6). -C. 14-27.

19. Skryabin, A. G. Morphological characteristics of rotan Perccottus glenii (Eliotridae) in the Baikal basin / A. G. Skryabin // Issues of ichthyology. - 1997. - T. 37. - No. 3. - S. 421-423.

20. Elovenko, V. N. Morphological and ecological characteristics of rotan Perccottus glehni Dyb. within the boundaries of the natural range and beyond: abstract. dis. . Cand. biol. Sciences: 03.00.10 / V.N. Elovenko, VNIIPRH. - M., 1985 .-- 24 p.

The article is devoted to the morphometric description of Perccottus Glenii, which was caught in October 2009 in the land-reclamation canal near the village Bolshye Avtuki, Kalinkovichi district, Gomel region. The material is presented by pubertal even-aged species - 60 specimens with the length of the body without caudal fin - 67.3-108.5 mm. 27 plastic and 12 meristic signs are analysed. Reliable distinctions between he-fish and she-fish on two plastic signs are shown. The comparison of the data obtained with the data of other researchers is conducted. Authentic distinctions on 8 plastic signs of the Perccottus Glenii of the researched reservoir and of the Perccottus Glenii of the ponds of Minsk are revealed.

Appearance

This is a small nondescript fish up to 14-25 cm long, weighs less than 500 grams - the size depends on the amount of food and habitat. The mules are considered to be record-breaking 40 cm long and weighing 800 grams. Instances of maximum size are extremely rare, although rotan lives up to 15 years. The average life expectancy is 7–10 years; rotan reaches puberty by 2 years.

It has a dense short body, a large head and a large mouth, several rows of sharp teeth. Gill covers have a soft spine directed backwards, while fins are soft, without spines at all. Because of the fins, rotan is very similar to the representative of goby fish. The main difference is the ventral fins - they are paired, located close to the head and are quite small.

The scales are dull, medium in size. The color of the fish varies, but gray-green and dirty brown tones predominate, the belly is gray, there are spots and stripes. In the mating season, the fish turns black.

Lifestyle

Despite its small size, the Amur goby is a predator, moreover, active and quite dangerous. This is due to its fertility and ability to destroy all other species in a single pond. The firebrand lives mainly in stagnant waters, in which there are no conditions for other predators. If natural enemies (salmon, eel, perch, pike, pike perch) are present, then the number of rotan is usually small, and the size is small - up to 200 grams.

В зависимости от возраста амурский бычок питается:

  1. В «младенчестве» зоопланктоном,
  2. В более взрослом возрасте рацион «разбавляется» бентосом (микроорганизмы, обитающие на дне) и мелкими беспозвоночными,
  3. Взрослые рыбы предпочитают головастиков и икры других видов, пиявок, тритонов, даже мелких рыб. Не брезгуют и каннибализмом – пожирают более мелких ротанов.

Нерест приходится конец весны-середину лета. Половозрелые (двухлетние) амурский бычки начинают размножаться: самки откладывают до тысячи икринок, которые после охраняют самцы.

Habitat

Идеальным местом жительства для ротана являются стоячие водоемы с хорошо развитой растительностью. На растениях и предметах они откладывают икру. Однако рыба хорошо переживает даже суровые условия: загрязненную воду, пересыхание водоема и т.д. They can even survive the freezing of water: glycine and glucose inside the body bind free water, increasing the concentration of salt. This lowers the crystallization temperature, allowing the rattan to survive the cold time. However, completely frozen fish will not come to life.

Today, rotan fish, the origin of which is the Far East of Russia, northeast of China and the north of North Korea, as well as the Amur River and its tributaries, has spread almost throughout the center of Russia. It is found in the Ob, Dniester, Volga, Don, Dnieper, Ural, Irtysh and Styr rivers, mainly in stagnant water bodies where there are no predators that can restrain population growth. In the twentieth century, fish got into Lake Baikal - many scientists regard this as biological pollution.

Distribution between water bodies occurs in floods or with the participation of humans. Since the Amur goby is an excellent bait for predators, it is easily caught and tolerates transportation, it is regularly caught and transported to other reservoirs, where it remains and begins to breed. However, such a distribution causes damage primarily to fisheries and predatory fish, as the firebrand eats fry of more valuable fish.

Fishing

A large head of fire is often an object of fishing: it can be eaten and used as a bait. You can catch rotan on:

  1. Earthworm
  2. Maggots and bloodworms,
  3. Raw meat or lard, chicken skin,
  4. Mormyshki and little baubles. Sometimes it is enough to attach red threads to the hook.

The main rule of catching a ratan is to regularly (every 30-40 minutes) change the bait, which loses its attractiveness. It is best to catch the firebrand in spring and summer - in the fall, the rotan begins to hide, and in winter it usually gets into flocks and goes to the bottom.

When catching, the firebrand usually deeply captures the prey, because of which it can not break. For successful fishing, a fishing rod with a hook and a meter of fishing line are enough - the rotan is not picky. Because of its survivability, one rotan can be used as a bait all day.

Rotan cooking

Despite the unattractive appearance and use as a bait, the Amur goby is edible. It can be boiled, stewed, fried and salted, cooked soups, casseroles and even omelet and salad. When cooked correctly, it acquires an exquisite taste: for example, fried firebrand is “sweeter” than similarly prepared crucian carp. The pinkish-white meat of the fish is dense and tender, has few large bones that are easily removed or stewed until soft.

A popular dish is rotan cutlets. To prepare them you will need:

  1. 500 g ratan
  2. 1-2 potatoes
  3. 1-2 onions
  4. 2 eggs,
  5. Flour or breadcrumbs,
  6. 1-2 tablespoons of butter,
  7. 100 g of lard
  8. Salt, pepper, garlic and other spices.

  1. Grind the fish through a meat grinder, add oil, lard, spices, potatoes and onions to the minced meat,
  2. Then beat eggs, mix with flour or breadcrumbs and also add to minced fish,
  3. Stir in flour or crackers until the forcemeat texture is dense enough to form cutlets,
  4. After they cut the cutlets themselves and fry in a pan on both sides.

The "composition" of fish per 100 grams:

  1. Calorie content - 88 kcal,
  2. Proteins - 17.5 g. Protein is easily absorbed and is great for diet food,
  3. Fats - 2 g
  4. Carbohydrates - 0 g,
  5. Water - 70 g
  6. Vitamins: A, E, PP and D,
  7. Trace elements: magnesium, manganese, iron, bromine, copper, potassium, sulfur, zinc, molybdenum.

Decorative fish

Rotan can also be used as a home aquarium fish. They are unpretentious and well suited for beginner aquarists. "Home" fish have a more saturated color than the "wild" relatives, and usually less - up to 8 cm in length. As feed suitable as dry granules, and live bloodworms and tubulo.

They are less demanding on oxygen (they easily tolerate its reduced content in water), and also feel good even in small cold aquariums. For example, 2 individuals will have enough 10 liters. The only condition for maintenance is that inside the aquarium there should be plants and decorations, for example, wicker snags, so that the Amur goby can hide in them.

Keeping firebrand with other fish is not recommended. Being predators, they can gobble up all the "neighbors", and there have been cases when rotans attacked fish growing from themselves. Sometimes firebrands lasted 1-2 days for the complete destruction of the guppy or neon families.

Rotan or firebrand is a small predatory fish living in stagnant water bodies. It is an object of fishing, used as a bait for predators, as a food or aquarium pet. Despite its small size, it is quite dangerous for the ecology of a single reservoir, as it can completely destroy all the inhabitants.

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