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Orchid stangopeia tigrina and oculata Cultivation and care at home Photo species of stangopea

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The name is given to the family in honor of G. Stangop - President of the London Medical and Biological Society.

Described by the English botanist Frost in 1829, the genus includes about 50 species, mostly epiphytic, living in tropical America - from Mexico to Brazil and Peru. They require moderately warm conditions.

Plants have a typical habit - rather large, furrowed, oval univalent bulbs, broadly lanceolate, folded, pointed leaves. The peduncle moves away from the base of the bulb and is directed downward. Large, fleshy, fragrant flowers live for several days.

Eye stangopeia - Stanhopea oculata Ldl. Distributed from Mexico to Panama. Bulbs up to 7 cm high bear leaves up to 45 cm long and 15 cm wide. Three to nine densely-sitting fragrant flowers up to 12 cm in diameter are located on the peduncle. Petals and sepals are light yellow, cream-white or greenish-white, strewn with red purple dots. A lip with large red-purple spots on each side. It blooms in summer.

Hernandez Stangopeia — Stanhopea hernandezii (Kunth) Schltr. (S. tigrina Batem). Homeland - Mexico. Bulbs are oval, 5-7 cm high. The leaves are large, up to 50 cm long. On the peduncle there are two or three flowers with a diameter of up to 20 cm, fragrant, living for 4-5 days, yellow with large red-brown spots. A lighter lip is strewn with small red-brown dots. It blooms in summer.

Types of "Stangopey"

The soil
  • Substrate for epiphytic orchids.
The size
  • from 30 to 50 cm
Flowering time
  • April to October
Possible colors
    Illumination
    • Many // Western, southern orientation, may require several hours of direct sunlight
    Watering
    • Medium // Heavy watering 2-3 times a week
    Difficulty of leaving
    • Medium // Generally unpretentious, may present specific requirements for this type of
    Air humidity
    • Many // High humidity (60% and more: tropics all year round, typical summer humidity in the middle lane)
    Fertilizer frequency
    • Many // Requires frequent fertilizer (including year-round)
    Content temperature
    • warm content (+22 - + 27 ° C)

    Content

    • 1. Description
    • 2. Growing
    • 3. Diseases and pests
    • 4. Reproduction
    • 5. First steps after purchase
    • 6. Secrets of success
    • 7. Possible difficulties

    The small genus Stangopeia from the Orchid family unites approximately 50 species. Epiphytic orchids in nature grow only in South America. The characteristic outgrowths on the lip endowed Stangopey with another name - the head of a bull.

    In the floriculture, Stangopeya came in the XIX century, captivating the hearts with bewitching flowering. Univalent oval pseudobulbs are located close to each other. Dark green leaf plates are lanceolate. Stangopei have chosen their flowering option - their peduncles grow sideways and downward. That is, they bloom upside down.

    The number of buds on the peduncle varies from 2 to 10. The impressive size of the flowers is another feature of Stangopey. The original structure also distinguishes them - the shape of the lips, petals and sepals. Of course, in the creation of decorativeness an important role belongs to coloring - it is almost impossible to tear one’s eyes from drawings of lines, strokes and dots. Another plus in the "piggy bank of merits" of the plant is smells. Of course, among them there are those that can only be liked by an insect. However, only fragrant species settled in indoor floriculture.

    Blossoming orchids can be without exaggeration called beautiful. Unfortunately, beauty is short-lived. The life span of each flower does not exceed 2–4 days. However, due to the appearance of new peduncles and the successive opening of buds, the total flowering time increases.

    Stangopei are not the most difficult to grow orchids. Subject to recommendations, owners are pleased with annual flowering.

    Growing

    Transplanted Stangopei usually every 2-3 years. That is, when the substrate spends its useful properties. When choosing a capacity, the growth rate of the plant should be taken into account so that there is enough space for new pseudobulbs. The best time for this event is spring or the end of flowering.

    Stangopei is propagated by dividing the bush. It is important to remember that orchids of this kind need at least 5 pseudobulbs for growth and development. In addition, a divided plant can take a break - skip flowering. You can only share a healthy, strong Stangopeia.

    When growing Stangopey, it should be borne in mind that flowering weakens the orchid. Therefore, it is advisable for a young plant to leave 1 peduncle per pseudobulb. Once having sacrificed the number of flowers and the duration of the flowering period, the owner will receive “worthy compensation” by abundant flowering next year.

    Why is the stangopea not blooming?

    Novice growers complain that the stangopea refuses to bloom. You should know that until the orchid gains a good green mass, i.e. will increase several full-fledged pseudobulbs, the peduncle will not appear. For most species, it is necessary to arrange a forced dormant period, then two annual growths are obtained, approximating flowering. Peduncles appear on the posterior (older) pseudobulbs.

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    The genus Stanhopea (Hook) has about 50 species that are widespread in the tropics of America - from Mexico to Brazil and Peru. Named after Ph. Stanhope - President of the London Medical and Botanical Society. Epiphytes. Bulbs are ovoid, ribbed, univalent. The leaf is oblong-oval, petiolate, folded, with clearly protruding longitudinal veins. Peduncles form at the base of the bulb and grow obliquely down or to the side. In this regard, plants are grown in suspended baskets with a trellised bottom and sides, filled with a loose substrate based on sphagnum. Due to 2 outgrowths on the lip resembling a bull’s horns, orchids of this genus received the second name “orchid - bull”. The only drawback is the short flowering time, which, however, is bathed in the high originality of the flowers and the pleasant, but very strong, aroma of the species most popular in home culture.
    This article will mainly deal with the tiger stangopeia (S. tigrina Batem.), However, many tips are suitable for other non deciduous species.
    Blooming stangopeia tiger in July - September. Peduncles form on bulbs of last year's growth after a period of dormancy. As a rule, in the inflorescence there are several large, fleshy and fragrant flowers. The duration of flowering is 2 to 4 days.
    For beginners, stangopei lovers can be quite difficult in culture and not bloom for a long time. You should know that they do not bloom at all until the plant gains a certain biomass and at least a few bulbs normal in size for a particular species. Since the dormancy period of many stangopei is forced, under certain conditions they can give two annual growths, which allows you to relatively quickly get a flowering plant from the rear bulbs. This is especially true if you get the back without roots or a small fragment of a plant with several bulbs. If a bulb on a mature plant for some reason has formed small (random winter growth in poor conditions) and with a small leaf, then it will not bloom, but the previous one (not blooming bulb) can bloom if it is normal for this type of stangopei.
    The development cycle of a young non-flowering plant is as follows. From May to August-September, active growth. At this time, you need to shade the plant, regularly water it, but do a little drying of the peripheral part of the substrate. In some sources, it is completely unreasonable, it is recommended instead of ordinary watering, to saturate the substrate with moisture, immerse the basket with the plant 1-2 times a week for several minutes in room temperature water. For young specimens, this method is unacceptable, since the root system is still underdeveloped, and such "watering" in the future does not contribute to its development. As a result, after 5-6 months, the moss begins to smell rot. Watering is best done in the usual way around the periphery of the basket (for example, with a small watering can with or without a diffuser), so that water spills through the substrate and partially nourishes it. No need to pour on bulbs. Under them, it is most often constantly wet. Since sphagnum is usually used as a substrate, the moisture inside the basket can be checked by touch. I draw attention to this fact. The thickness of the velamen at the root of the stangopeia of tiger diameter 4 mm, can reach 1 mm! It is genetically determined, since the stangopei are adapted for life on horizontal forks of branches or hanging from the edge of a cliff. Under natural conditions, part of the plant’s roots is directed to the sides and up to catch leaf litter and other organic debris, forming an environment from it for the further development of its root system. Naturally, such an environment is blown away by all winds and a thick layer of velamen serves to retain moisture, since its dried-up outer layer can serve as protection against drying out of the inner layers for some time. The content of stangopei in a moisture-absorbing substrate contradicts the nature of these orchids, but is convenient for artificial conditions! Therefore, it is necessary to let the peripheral part of the substrate dry out and not get carried away with watering. This serves the purpose of forming a well-developed root system. If watering by immersion, then the roots do not live long. Maximum season.
    It is not recommended to allow weak specimens to grow more than one growth from each active bulb; otherwise, bulbs of new growths will be small. Usually, in young plants, new growths are activated only on bulbs of the previous vegetation, and in mature specimens, spare buds of old bulbs can occasionally wake up.

    You can depart from this rule once, in the second or third year of the life of a young plant, if you focus on getting a large collection specimen in the future. However, this will delay the first flowering. I raised one of my copies of an unidentified stangopeia from two bulbs up to twenty and the first flowering for five years at the time of writing. In the third year, she allowed her to grow two growths from each of last year’s bulbs, and for the next two years extra growth broke out so that the bulbs were large. In the first flowering of this specimen, there were four peduncles at once, one of which disappeared after leaving the substrate.
    When watering, water should not get inside the young leaves coming out of the cover formed by the covering scales. This can lead to rotting of the sheet inside the cover formed by the lower covering scales. A sign of decay is yellowing of the part of the sheet emerging from the cover. In this case, it is necessary to immediately remove the entire cover, and then the sheet, otherwise the developing bulb may also rot from it. Removal begins with the lower covering scales. The sheet should be removed so as not to damage the bulb, which will continue to develop, but will not reach its normal size. If decay has passed to the bulb, it should be removed, and the cut-off site should be disinfected with vodka, alcohol, and then sprinkled with activated charcoal or sulfur and completely dried.

    A leaf with a bulb may also die due to "puppet" growth. Under inadequate conditions, the cover ceases to grow in sync with the sheet. Accordingly, the tip of the sheet gets stuck at the exit from the cover, continuing to grow inside, gradually crumpling into an accordion. Since the outlet opening of the cover is tightly clogged and there is no ventilation, the humidity inside the cover increases and after some time the growing sheet decays. If you do not remove the cover in time and the sheet that starts to deteriorate, the bulb will die. This can happen both in hot summers with insufficient watering and low humidity, and with autumn-winter growth, when it is relatively cold, watering is rare, and there is no additional illumination of the plant.
    During the period of active growth, a daytime temperature of no higher than +25 - +27 ° C is desirable, but stangopei can withstand a significant short-term temperature increase under conditions of abundant watering.
    Usually in August, bulbs are already almost formed and root growth begins. This is accompanied by a slight wrinkling up to this smooth bulb. If watering at the time of bulb formation is insufficient (does not correspond to the current needs of the plant), root growth begins earlier and occurs simultaneously with bulb growth. The negative influence of this phenomenon on the future flowering, I did not notice. Only bulbs can be a little smaller and sometimes not always. Their size is more affected by the total number of simultaneously growing bulbs. At stangopeia, tiger roots can continue to grow actively in the fall and winter, if the temperature at night does not fall below + 16 ° С.
    With illumination, the tiger stangopea will grow normally all year round. To do this, in autumn, it is necessary to place the plant under a fluorescent lamp of daylight in a warm place, not lower than +22 ° C during the day and + 18 ° C at night and watered adequately with temperature and humidity. By March-April, the next growth will end and a new development cycle will begin.
    If the plant develops normally, the size of the bulb from vegetation to vegetation increases, for 2-3 years you can get a flowering plant from 3-4 bulbs. It should be noted that with excessive watering, bulbs can be small, and the expected flowering will not occur. It is necessary to carefully monitor the dynamics of plant development and develop a watering regime based on the properties of the substrate used.
    In winter, stangopei who have gone to rest are watered very moderately depending on temperature (2-4 times a month) and feel normal at daytime temperature (15-18 ° C). If the apartment is warm, you need to place the plant in the most cold, dimly lit place and water less. Never spray with warm water. In cold apartments, it is quite enough to water at room temperature.
    For an adult plant (potentially capable of blooming), agricultural technology should be different. After active growth, in the fall, the plant should be put into a dormant state. This is achieved by reducing irrigation and lowering the temperature to a value slightly below +18 ° C. If the plant finishes growing in early autumn, then it can be put on the windowsill in the coldest and dimly lit place. To go to rest, he usually has enough to lower the temperature before the start of the heating season. Then the plant can even be moved to a lighter, but always cool place. If in winter the night temperature on the windowsills does not rise above +16 ° С, then in conditions of low light and insufficient moisture, the tiger stangopeia does not try to grow. If the vegetation ended in August and is still warm, you need to reduce watering and temporarily move the plant to the balcony in a dimly lit place, having received a temperature drop at least at night. This is usually enough.
    Large specimens of plants can grow unevenly. In this case, putting the plant into dormancy can cause additional troubles. It is necessary to place the plant in a place where the bulbs that started late growth will normally finish development, and from the bulbs that have completed growth at the end of summer, new growths will not appear. For with. tiger is a daytime temperature not exceeding +20 ° С - +22 ° С (may individually depend on the specimen and irrigation intensity), with a night decrease to +16 ° С and not very bright lighting. The backlight can be indirect - something is highlighted, and the stangopeia is located nearby, but not under the lamp. In this situation, autumn growth usually ends in November - December, and bulbs will be of normal size. For more heat-loving species of stangopei, a nightly drop in temperature on the windowsill below +14 - +16 ° C can stop the growth of roots.
    In winter or spring, orchids wintering without illumination often turn yellow and fall leaves on old bulbs. Against this, you can try to do one or two preventive irrigation in advance with a low concentration of fertilizer (0.5% per liter) at the beginning of winter. However, this does not always help, since the leaves have an age limit after which they are discarded by the plant in any case.
    In the spring, depending on the temperature, I take my stangopei to the balcony for two or three weeks, thus creating a temperature difference. My stangopei endure the night temperature up to +7 ° С without problems. Watering for this period should naturally be reduced. After the establishment of warm weather, I mix the plants to the western window, where it is warm, there is shading and a temperature drop of 4-6 degrees during the day. Watering during this period should not be very plentiful, otherwise stangopei can grow instead of flowering. Such content gives 100% bloom to all of my specimens.
    brindle stangopeia

    Stangopei in spring or early summer quite often there is a secondary branching of the roots. For a flowering specimen, this is vital, since in the last week before flowering, buds grow “in front of the eyes” and a plant cannot do without a good root system. A day or two before revealing the flowers you need to do abundant watering. Often this extends the flowering for one day, and in some instances with. tiger flower petals after that do not bend back, until the end of flowering, maintaining a beautiful shape.
    Stangopei may not grow until flowering ends, and after flowering in August-September, produce many growths. In especially large specimens, some of the bulbs can bloom, and some give new growths.
    The peduncle appears unexpectedly, as in the substrate it grows very quickly (about 2-3 weeks). Appearing from the substrate, it slows down growth and passes a half - two months until the flowers bloom. The peduncle growing in the substrate does not have pigmentation and when it comes to light for several days it is colored with chlorophyll in green. If within 3-4 days the color does not appear, then the peduncle is likely to die.
    A common mistake is to increase watering and fertilize the plant after the appearance of the peduncle. In this case, young growth often wakes up near the peduncle, and the peduncle dries out. At the initial stage of development of the peduncle, there is no reason to change the content regimen. In large specimens, peduncles may appear gradually over a period of a month. If on such leaves the tip of the leaf plate begins to turn yellow on some leaves (which is usually a sign of nitrogen starvation), you can do one top dressing according to the formula (NPK) 10-30-20 with a concentration of not more than 1 g / l, when they begin to develop on the first peduncle the buds. Top dressing with a high ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus and potassium can interfere with the flowering of other bulbs. For plants with a single peduncle, a slightly larger amount of nitrogen can be given.
    In the period of active growth, top dressing is carried out according to the formula (N-P-K) - 30-10-10 with a concentration of not more than 1.5 g / l. Usually 6-8 weekly top dressing is enough for the normal development of plants in malnutrition substrates.
    For stangopei you can use different substrates . The main requirement is friability so that the peduncles are not damaged. It is desirable that the thickness of the substrate does not exceed 15 cm, otherwise the flower stalk, being in humid conditions for a long time, can become steamed and a precipice. You can use a mixture of sphagnum, fern roots, slices of fiber peat with the addition of rotten and dry leaves, or a mixture of coniferous bark, semi-ripened leaves, sphagnum moss and charcoal (2: 2: 1: 0.5). If pure sphagnum is used, with its annual replacement the plant practically does not need top dressing. Before use, moss should be scalded with boiling water to kill pests. I change sphagnum every two years and moderately feed my plants.
    Using pure sphagnum also facilitates transplantation, since the roots of the moss do not stick, and the basket can simply be disassembled for convenience. Some peripheral roots that stick to the basket material are damaged, but with a developed root system, this does not noticeably affect the general condition of the plant.
    A basket for stangopei is made of wooden planks with a cross section of 12-15 cm, or plastic tubes of square section. The latter are preferable, since they do not rot and are not affected by the fungus. The bottom of the basket can be made of plastic grates for sinks with large cells, and preferably of round tubes.
    In my practice, there was a case when the peduncle rested on a plastic grill. Therefore, during the expected yield of the peduncle from the substrate, you need to inspect the bottom of the basket every day, for control. The grill should be made of a material without dyes (translucent). Then just notice the tip of the peduncle resting on the grill.
    Some bulbs grow deep in the substrate. If the base of the leaf in such bulbs begins to turn yellow from the petiole to the outer edge, immediately check the condition of the bulb. Sometimes they rot due to moisture!

    General information from various sources

    Stangopeia
    It comes from the mountainous regions of Mexico, Central and South America. The genus includes about 30 species of evergreen epiphytic orchids.
    Epiphytic or epilithic orchids. Their small ovoid ribbed bulbs bear one sheet with sharply protruding veins. Peduncles are formed at the base of the bulb and grow vertically downward, drilling the substrate and the bottom of the basket and taking out 3-7 flowers. The flowers are large, bizarre in shape, with a strong aroma. The sepals and petals are bent up, and the column and lip are directed down. The lip is fleshy, gristly, of a complex structure. Its middle part is equipped with horn-shaped outgrowths, for which the people call the stangopeia “bull orchid”. Flowering lasts 2-3 days.
    Growing conditions
    Plants are grown in hanging baskets with a loose substrate for epiphytic orchids. Prepare a shallow (10 cm high) basket with large holes (1 cm x 1 minimum) over the entire area (all sides and bottom). The basket must be suspended.
    For substrate you must have: bark, moss, preferably rotted horse or some humus or take humisol (Stangi - terrible gluttons).
    In spring and summer, during flowering and active growth, they are kept at a temperature of 20-25 degrees, moisturize abundantly and greatly shade. In winter, during dormancy, the temperature is lowered to 16-18 degrees. Put on the windowsill near the window, and watering is reduced to two times a month.
    Watering and spraying
    During the growth period, water abundantly and daily spray the substrate. In the hot period, stangs were soaked daily with vandas, regular fertilizers in the period of new growth, after the complete growth of new growth, at rest. Since the temperature in September is still high, I periodically spill the substrate (already without soaking).
    During dormancy (winter or early summer), water is very rare.
    And if the young plant does not stop completely watering, but only reduce it (that is, occasionally spill it. In winter, look at the circumstances and temperature of maintenance, but periodically spray the soil. Then look at the new growth: if it is the size of the mother’s bulb, and a young plant is larger, then you understand the plant. The main thing is to delve into its pace of life. If new growth grows, light up and supplement it. Riverm, Dr. Foley (what is the ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) goes well. More nitrogen is needed. watering 2-3 times a month (look at St. their conditions and state of the plant) in a cool, 10-15 degrees, without supplementary lighting, daylight is sufficient. My only hang in the window. In the spring gradually renew standards. Irrigation.


    Tops grows very quickly and easily, with blooming can be a problem. It is necessary to contrive with the Stangs to catch the moment when they have already developed the bulb, but have not yet given new growths. At this time, it is necessary to reduce the temperature to 10-12 degrees, do not water at all, only keep high humidity and give maximum light.
    Do not spray. Young growths VERY quickly rot with the slightest ingress of moisture inside. Grow like weeds. The problem is wintering, and therefore blooming. Of course, a successful clone may come across that can adapt to a warm and not very light wintering, but this is a rarity.

    Proper watering and lighting

    In most species, the period of active growth of young plants falls on May-August (September). At this time, we keep it from direct sunlight, the light should get diffused. The root system has not yet been formed, so watering through complete immersion often leads to decay. Feel the substrate with your fingers to determine the need for another moisturizing. Water by moving along the walls of the basket.

    The ingress of water into the developing leaves, covered with a peculiar cover of the covering scale, leads to decay. The process can go to a pseudobulb. If the leaf turns yellow, immediately remove it along with the scales. Cut off the rotten pseudobulb, process the rhizome with alcohol or sprinkle the place of cut with activated carbon powder.

    There is a possibility of death of the sheet and pseudobulb due to "clogging". Under inappropriate conditions (hot summer weather with low humidity and insufficient watering or autumn-winter coolness with minimal watering and lack of lighting), the sheet with a cover grows asynchronously. The top of the sheet gets stuck at the outlet of the cover, while it unfolds inside and blocks the access of oxygen. If the “construction” is not removed in time, the entire shoot will rot.

    First steps after purchase

    Stangopei come to a new house in a temporary container. If the plant immediately enters a period of dormancy, then until spring it can not be disturbed. In early spring, the orchid should be transplanted into a basket or box with holes in the bottom and sides. Enlightenments are needed so that flower stalks can find a way out.

    Regardless of the time of year, the first days of watering are carried out in minimal portions. It is also completely undesirable to place the plant in bright light. Accustoming to full lighting should be carried out gradually.

    Secrets of Success

    Stangopei need a lot of light, but direct sunlight is contraindicated. You need to take care of shading. Often the best solution is to use fluorescent lights.

    Moderate air temperatures are suitable for these orchids: + 20–25 ° C in summer. But exceeding up to 32 ° C is not dangerous if you increase watering, increase humidity and provide the plant with constant access to fresh air. Special measures for the difference in day / night temperatures do not need to be taken. The orchid is content with natural night cooling. Much closer attention should be paid to the winter temperature regime. A more comfortable flower rests at + 16–18 ° C. Cooling is permissible, but also requires changes in irrigation and moisture, however, downward.

    Special skill is required from owners when watering. The plant is both hygrophilous and prone to rot. Watering is carried out only after drying of the substrate with settled water at room temperature. In winter, the flower is watered occasionally, preventing pseudobulbs from drying out.

    Since the features of the orchid do not allow the installation of pallets, it is possible to increase the air humidity by spraying and installing humidifiers. The second method is preferable. When spraying, the risk of droplets getting on the plant cannot be ruled out. The liquid does not harm adult leaves, but can provoke decay of new growth.

    Stangopei is fed with a weak solution of complex fertilizer for orchids. The plant needs additional nutrition from spring to autumn. Top dressing during dormancy causes active leaf growth, but prevents flowering.

    Plant development

    From one growing season to another, pseudobulbs increase in size and after 2-3 seasons in the future you should get an orchid with 3-4 pseudobulbs and enjoy flowering. Intensive watering leads to the formation of more processes, however they are smaller, and waterlogging also increases the risk of decay. Watering mode, select depending on the moisture permeability of the substrate.

    In a weak orchid, it is recommended to leave one new process from each pseudobulb, otherwise the rest will form small. If you want to get a large plant, then on the 2-3rd year of the plant's life you can depart from this rule, although the first flowering will be delayed.

    Until the end of flowering, stangopei practically do not grow, and then they release many new pseudobulbs. A regular pattern is seen in an adult plant: some pseudobulbs bloom regularly, others grow young shoots.

    Possible difficulties

    Yellowing and falling of leaves

    Reasons: 1) insufficient lighting in the winter months, 2) exposure to direct sunlight.

    Reasons: 1) lack of lighting during flowering.

    Reasons: 1) the liquid that got on the growth, 2) the "pupation" of growth.

    Flowering rejection

    Reasons: 1) conditions were not provided during the dormant period, 2) consequences of reproduction, 3) excessively overgrown curtains.

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    How not to ruin a flower stalk

    Stangopei oculata at home photo

    The flower-bearing stalk in the soil develops quickly, literally in 2-3 weeks. It comes out discolored and within 3-4 days should be painted, if this does not happen, it dies in most cases. When pigmentation appeared, the development process slows down and the first bud opens after 1.5-2 months.

    Mistakenly inexperienced gardeners begin to more actively water the orchid and fertilize, thereby awakening a young shoot near the peduncle, while the latter dies. Keep in mind that at the initial stage of the formation of a flower-bearing stem, it is impossible to change the conditions of detention and care. In an adult orchid, flower stalks can appear one after another for a month and, if the leaves turn yellow, the plant should be fed.

    At the moment the first bud appears, dose a full mineral fertilizer (NPK 10:30:20) in a proportion of 1 g per 1 liter of water. The increased nitrogen content will keep the rest of the pseudobulbs flowering and will bring the orchid back to normal.

    Air temperature

    Plant development

    From one growing season to another, pseudobulbs increase in size and after 2-3 seasons in the future you should get an orchid with 3-4 pseudobulbs and enjoy flowering. Intensive watering leads to the formation of more processes, however they are smaller, and waterlogging also increases the risk of decay. Watering mode, select depending on the moisture permeability of the substrate.

    In a weak orchid, it is recommended to leave one new process from each pseudobulb, otherwise the rest will form small. If you want to get a large plant, then on the 2-3rd year of the plant's life you can depart from this rule, although the first flowering will be delayed.

    Until the end of flowering, stangopei practically do not grow, and then they release many new pseudobulbs. A regular pattern is seen in an adult plant: some pseudobulbs bloom regularly, others grow young shoots.

    How not to ruin a flower stalk

    Stangopei oculata at home photo

    The flower-bearing stalk in the soil develops quickly, literally in 2-3 weeks. It comes out discolored and within 3-4 days should be painted, if this does not happen, it dies in most cases. When pigmentation appeared, the development process slows down and the first bud opens after 1.5-2 months.

    Mistakenly inexperienced gardeners begin to more actively water the orchid and fertilize, thereby awakening a young shoot near the peduncle, while the latter dies. Keep in mind that at the initial stage of the formation of a flower-bearing stem, it is impossible to change the conditions of detention and care.In an adult orchid, flower stalks can appear one after another for a month and, if the leaves turn yellow, the plant should be fed.

    At the moment the first bud appears, dose a full mineral fertilizer (NPK 10:30:20) in a proportion of 1 g per 1 liter of water. The increased nitrogen content will keep the rest of the pseudobulbs flowering and will bring the orchid back to normal.

    Adult Plant Care

    Air temperature

    As natives of tropical territories, stangopei are thermophilic. Some species need moderate coolness. For example, for stardopeia wardii, the daytime temperature should be maintained at 22 ° C, and at night it should drop by 4-10 ° C and be 14-18 ° C. For most stangopeys, the optimum daily temperature is within 30 ° C with a night drop to 18 ° C.

    Such differences are necessary for the harmonious development and subsequent flowering of orchids, therefore, must be observed. In the middle band this is not difficult to do. It is advisable to transfer the plant to fresh air (on the balcony, porch or garden) for the warm season, then the flower will be blown by the wind, and cool at night.

    Illumination

    It should be borne in mind that in the natural environment orchids do not live in open areas, but grow on trees under diffuse lighting. For cultivation, choose the same approach. Shade from direct sunlight with tulle, gauze or half-closed blinds. If you are at a certain distance from the east or west window, such measures will not be needed. Shaded parts of the room, but not quite dark corners, are suitable for stangopei.

    Do not exclude the possibility of using artificial lighting with ultraviolet lamps or fluorescent lamps. They should not have great power, a point stream of light relative to the flower will be enough.

    How to water

    Regarding watering, it is necessary to adhere to a strict position: it is necessary to moisten the soil in the morning, so that the water can drain by nighttime cooling and the roots dry out. The substrate is required to be moisture permeable, so that water can freely pass through it and flow out through the drainage holes (drain excess from the sump).

    An adult plant can be watered with a warm shower. Pour water heated to 35-45 ° C in a container with a fine spray. Spill over the plant slowly so that water gets on the leaves, pseudobulbs and substrate. Imitation of tropical rain stimulates growth and flowering, drain any excess water anyway. By the way, before watering it should be cleaned of harmful impurities. Use rainwater, thawed, filtered or 1-2 days left to stand.

    Humidity and spraying

    In nature, orchid roots are outside the substrate and additionally receive moisture from the air. With home growing this is not. Rhizome is almost completely located in the soil, which is regularly watered, and there is no need to increase the humidity in the room. Excessive moisture can harm the development of diseases.

    Under conditions of normal temperature conditions, the roots freely absorb moisture from the soil and evaporate it proportionally (how much they received, they gave so much). At high temperatures, the evaporation rate is higher, due to lack of moisture, the leaves will dry out and die. In this case, there is a need to increase the level of humidity.

    Use special humidifiers or place a vase of water, an aquarium, or a decorative fountain next to it. You can spray the space surrounding the flowers from a fine spray, just avoid droplets falling on the inflorescences or moisture accumulating in the base of the leaves. You can also wipe sheet plates with a damp soft cloth or sponge.

    How to feed

    Feeding stangopeia, like most orchids, should be during the growing season. The procedure should be weekly. Take a universal complex mineral fertilizer or a special mixture marked "For orchids."

    Initially, we dilute the fertilizer in a concentration of 1 to 1 with water. The resulting mixture in order to avoid causing burns to the roots is bred 2 times. A solution of a concentration of 1 to 10 is used for foliar feeding (sprayed on leaves). Do not part with top dressing, observe proportions, alternate root and foliar methods. For the root method, first spill the soil with clean, warm water.

    We change the conditions

    Many sources recommend introducing an orchid into a state of rest during the appearance of new pseudobulbs. Before the start of the heating season, it is necessary to reduce watering, lower the air temperature to 18 ° C and completely stop the fertilizing process.

    If the stangopeea finished the vegetation in August, you should move the plant to a shaded place on the balcony, which will provide night coolness. At the end of growth in early autumn, put the flower on a dimly lit window sill and lower the temperature. After entering the dormant stage, brighter lighting is allowed. At a temperature of 16 ° C and occasional watering (let the soil dry out almost completely) in the winter, the stangopea does not grow.

    In autumn, shoots of an adult plant can be at different stages of development. In order for the “belated” pseudobulbs to complete their formation and the existing ones to stop growing, it is necessary to maintain the air temperature in the range of 20-22 ° C during the day and lower the night temperature to 16 ° C. Diffused light should fall on the orchid from above. Pseudobulbs will reach normal size in November-December and growth will freeze.

    So that the leaves do not turn yellow

    When wintering under natural light, the leaves often turn yellow and die. To prevent a negative phenomenon, a couple of times at the beginning of winter, apply 0.5% of the dose of fertilizer. Leaving at rest is reduced to periodic watering, the substrate should remain dry most of the time. At this time, peduncles are formed in the soil and waterlogging will destroy them.

    Awakening

    "Awaken from sleep" plant is necessary gradually. In the spring we begin to water more often. With the establishment of constant heat for 2-3 weeks, take it to the balcony (the stangopeia will withstand night cooling down to 7 ° C with a plus sign). In May, daily fluctuations should be 4-6 ° C, water moderately.

    A bull orchid shows repeated branching in spring or in the first summer months. For an adult flowering specimen, the formation of a strong root system is especially important, it is in the last week before the flowering buds begin to grow. A couple of days before their full disclosure, watering should be increased, which will extend the short-term flowering by a day.

    Transplant stangopei at home

    Carefully remove the pot

    In nature, stangopei lead an epiphytic way of life: they settle in hollows and cracks on tree trunks, in general, they choose places with dust and the remains of flora brought by the wind. Peduncles they direct down. The capacity and substrate for growing stangopeia in room conditions require special.

    Free the roots from the old substrate

    Use willow or plastic baskets. They are suspended. The design can be made of any wooden planks 12-15 cm thick or plastic tubes with a square cross section. The second option is preferable, because the tree can rot. You can use a plastic pot with drainage holes, also make holes on the sides. The holes of the bottom are smaller and flower stalks may get stuck in them, so look ahead to flowering.

    The substrate is required as loose as possible, permeable to water and air. In flower shops there are special mixtures for orchids. It is independently prepared from deciduous land, pieces of spruce and fir bark, sphagnum moss, coconut fiber and fern rhizomes.

    Spill the components with boiling water or a weakly pink solution of potassium permanganate. Inside the container, cover the bottom and walls with a layer of moss-sphagnum about 12 cm thick (not thicker, because the flower stalks will not be able to break through). Put the plant and cover it with a substrate, also put sphagnum on top.

    Fill the remaining space with pieces of bark and prepared substrate

    It should be transplanted as necessary: ​​when the substrate is compressed or vice versa will fall apart, or will become saline with fertilizers, or the capacity will be small. Do not wait for the stangopeia to grow greatly and the pseudobulbs will begin to fall out of the pot, because they will die.

    How to propagate a stangopeia orchid at home

    At home, you won’t be able to grow stangopeia from seeds: this will require special seed treatment, strict adherence to natural conditions of development and a long time with scrupulous care. Cloning is also used. This is done in nurseries.

    At home, stangopeia is propagated by dividing a bush that has many pseudobulbs. Combine the division procedure with the transplant. Cut the rhizome with a scalpel or a sanitized one (incinerate with fire and let cool or hold the blade in a solution of potassium permanganate) with a well-sharpened knife. Each part should contain 3 formed pseudobulbs and healthy roots. Plant immediately in pots-baskets with a substrate for an adult plant.

    Diseases and pests of stangopei

    Violation of the temperature regime, inadequate lighting, lack of fertilizing or an excess of fertilizers, improper watering weaken the strength of the plant. It is also important to provide rest periods.

    From damp, at best, fungal infections develop, leading to decay. The affected areas are completely cut off to healthy tissue (it is a pity if previous care efforts disappear and you have to get rid of a large part of the plant), they are treated with fungicide and planted in a fresh substrate. If the virus is infected, the plant will have to be destroyed; it cannot be treated.

    Against the background of general weakness, the bull orchid becomes susceptible to pests. When air is dried in the room, spider mites show activity. Small rounded bugs of red color are not visible without a magnifier, but leave a selection in the form of white cobwebs, and black dots from bites are visible on the leaves. Just bathe the plant under a warm shower. Scale insects can also “settle” on the orchid. They form brownish plaque-growths on the leaves, clogging with a waxy coating. It is necessary to moisten a cotton swab with alcohol and scrape them off.

    Tigrin stangopeia or brindle Stanhopea tigrina

    Bushes 20-40 cm high. Lanceolate leaves are slightly convex, about 10 cm wide, they are attached with petioles 8-10 cm long. A greenish flower stalk 25 cm long is covered with light brown scales.

    3-10 gorgeous flowers with a diameter of about 17 cm hang down. The main tone is a light beige-orange hue. Maroon spots are present on the sepals and petals. The lip is bulky, brownish at the base, then beige with purple spots, it seems that eyes are located on the sides. Two crescent-shaped horns of the same color adjoin the lip. Delicious delicate aroma comparable to vanilla and chocolate.

    Oculate stangopeia or big-eyed Stanhopea Oculata

    Each pseudobulb produces a single leaf, which together with the petiole reaches a length of 70 cm. The shape of the leaf plates is elongated-oval, and the color is dark green. The graceful flower resembles a fabulous bird flapping its wings as it takes off. In diameter they are 15 centimeters. The background is snow-white with a pearl sheen or pinkish, beige. On it are scattered pink specks. The lower part of the lip is yellow, and on the sides are two burgundy dots - those same “eyes”. The strong vanilla aroma of the flower sometimes causes a headache, so ventilate the room during flowering.

    Stanhopea anfracta

    Thanks to the wide-oval leaves, along with the petioles, the height of the orchid is 40 cm. Peduncles are certainly directed down. The diameter of the fragrant corollas is 10 cm. Petals of warm yellow color brighten to the tips. Brown spots with a light border are visible on the surface. The fleshy dark yellow lip resembles a tongue; at its base there are two maroon spots. Pestles are long and thickened, they are also decorated with brownish specks. The aroma is strong.

    Stanhopea avicula

    Leaves with veins resemble plantain, only the leaf plate of an orchid elongated to 30 cm and with a sharp tip. They stand straight, and flower stalks are directed down. The flowers, as if poured out of wax, are 10 cm across. The base of the petals and lips are sunny yellow, and the tone brightens towards the edges. Pestle in the form of an elongated white tube with strokes of burgundy. Accompanied by a flowering delicate unobtrusive aroma.

    Snow white Stanhopea candida

    Together with the petioles, the leaves are 30-40 cm long, grow one of each pseudobulb. The shape of the leaf plate is oval with a rounded base and a slightly sharp tip, the color is completely bright green, there are longitudinal veins. The flower-bearing arrow is knobby, gray-green in color and whitens to the tip. Corollas of this orchid with a diameter of 7-8 cm resemble fluttering moths. The crystal white color of the petals and lips at the base is characterized by pinkish ripples. The massive pestle from the base is greenish yellowing to the apex. The smell is not strong, slightly chemical. The flowering period should be expected in late winter or early spring.

    Stanhopea cirrhata

    Oval leaves of a dark green hue emerge one from each pseudobulb. Due to the longitudinal veins to the apex, the leaf curls slightly. Figured flower with a wax coating. Unlike other representatives of the genus it is deprived of “horns”. I remind the wide petals of the ears, the lip is open and makes the pestle accessible for pollination. An uncomplicated flower exudes a most delicate aroma, for which the gardeners liked the view.

    Stanhopea ecornuta

    Distantly, the flower only resembles an orchid. Snow-white petals-wings frame a small yellowish lip with brown specks. The flat pestle is attached to the lip, dark yellow at the base and also mottled around the perimeter. Leaves are lanceolate. 30 cm long, narrow from the base, have a wider middle part and a sharp tip. The veins are longitudinal and can deform the sheet plate.

    Flowers with a delicate aroma open closer to winter.

    Stangopeia Embre Stanhopea embreei

    The bush is 20-30 cm high. The lanceolate leaf, due to the longitudinal veins, bends slightly inward, the color is bright green with lighter edges. A flower chiseled by nature, like a real work of art. It is about 8 cm across and appears in early spring. The shade is cream, orange or yellow. Petals bend back. The lip is waxy, its color is always brighter, there are burgundy spots on the sides. The pestle is dense and shiny, light green in color with a speckled surface. A mild delicate aroma has an admixture of needles and mint.

    Stangopea Florida Stanhopea florida

    In height, the pseudobulbs along with the leaves extend to 40 cm. A leaf plate of a typical elongated shape with veins, the color is densely green. The flower-bearing stalk of a gray-pink hue collects 5-9 flowers (diameter within 8-13 cm). The surface of the cream or white hue is strewn with burgundy specks, the concentration of points on the lip is denser. Pestle has a greenish tint. Amazingly beautiful flower does not smell much like mothballs. Flowering is regular. This unpretentious look is suitable for beginners.

    Stangopea large-flowered Stanhopea Grandiflora

    Height is about 30-50 cm. Elongated leaves with longitudinal stripes of veins have a bright green shiny surface. Snow-white, like a porcelain flower, takes a diameter of 14-16 cm. Spiky petals look up and to the sides. The large lip and outgrowths of the horns cover the greenish pestle. It blooms almost all year. The aroma is pleasant: a combination of sweet camphor with an admixture of citrus notes.

    Stangopeia Nigripes Stanhopea nigripes

    Oval leaves are flexible, pointed to the apex. To the pseudobulbs are attached one at a time using the petiole. A flower of uniform yellow color with "freckles" - brownish dots. At the base of the lip are burgundy spots. The diameter of the corolla is 7-8 cm. The aroma is sweet-tart.

    Stangopeia Ward or Ward Stanhopea Stanhopea wardii

    Dark green lanceolate leaf plates straighten 30-40 cm in length. The base is narrow and the tips are pointed, the widest part is 10 cm. The dark green background is streaked longitudinally. A fifteen-centimeter peduncle produces 2-5 corollas of a golden hue, dark brown specks are scattered on the surface. Oval petals with sharp tips are bent back and resemble butterfly wings. The lip is triple, dense, protrudes forward. The diameter of the corolla is not more than 8 cm, but the flowers have a pleasant sweetish aroma.

    Stangopeia black and purple Stanhopea nigroviolacea

    A species of Mexican origin blooming in summer. The leaves are large and wide, like burdocks, have a glossy veneered surface. Dark brown spots are scattered against the background of the petals and lips of a beige-greenish tint. The aroma is vanilla.

    Yangish Stanhopea Jenischiana

    Orchid 40-50 cm high. The flower's shape resembles an exotic insect or bird. The color is sunny yellow, there are brown specks, the surface of the petals is glossy. It blooms between April and October. In the inflorescence of about 6 corollas.

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