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Weevil (mowing, elephant), (Curculionidae)


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Weevils, or elephants (Curculionidae)

Weevils, or elephants - insects from the order Coleoptera or Beetles (Coleoptera). Among weevils there are many dangerous pests of cultivated plants, with mass reproduction capable of significantly reducing yield.

Furrowed weevil, Single scythe (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.).

Widespread pest. In some cases, it damages indoor plants after summer keeping them in the fresh air, due to which the beetles penetrate the pots. Adult beetles are mostly nocturnal, in the daytime they are almost invisible, most often they hide in the substrate. The beetle has a black color, elytra with deep pointed beards. The beetles are about 8-10 mm long, they do not fly, the head is elongated, and mouth organs are at its end. The larvae are white in color, with a brown head, legless, curved, up to 12 mm long; the larval phase lasts 2 to 12 months depending on the conditions; after pupation, the adult beetles emerge after three weeks of larva. Females live depending on conditions for 5-12 months. Females lay from 100 to 1000 eggs during their life. Eggs are laid in a substrate, in heaps, where after 2-3 weeks larvae emerge from them and immediately start feeding. Most often, the pest damages the edges of the leaves, eating sections of the leaf blade, the larvae can damage the root system of the plant, causing it to wilt.

Bukarka (Coenorrhinus pauxillus Germ.).

Distributed in the south and in the central regions of the ETR. Damages various fruit trees. Beetles winter in the soil, at a depth of about 10-15 cm.

In spring, at an average daily temperature above + 10 ° С, pests go to trees, where buds gnaw out, damage buds and flowers. During flowering, females lay one egg on the leaves in specially gnawed recesses, gnaw the petioles. One female lays up to 100 eggs.

Larvae feed on leaves; as a result, leaves fly around in the early stages, in June. The larvae along with the leaves fall on the soil, where they go deep to a depth of about 5 cm for pupation.

Under difficult conditions for the development of the pest, in particular, drought, it is waiting for an unfavorable period and pupates and turns into beetles the next year in autumn.

Cherry Weevil (Rhynchites auratus Scop.).

Distributed in the south of the ETR, in the Altai Territory. Mostly damaging cherries.

Beetles hibernate in the soil, in spring, during mass flowering, cherries leave their shelters and feed on buds, flowers, leaves, and later on ovaries.

In the mating fruits, the females gnaw out ovoid-shaped chambers, where they lay one egg each and close the cork with excrement and food debris. The female lays up to 150 eggs, a week later larvae appear, penetrate the bones and eat it. After 4-5 weeks, the larvae get out of the damaged fruits, fall onto the soil and dig into it to a depth of about 10 cm, pupate, turn into beetles that winter in the soil until next spring.

Part of the larvae turns into beetles in the fall of next year, falling into diapause.

Kazarka (Rhynchites bacchus L.).

Distributed in the south and in the center of the ETR. It harms in the main plum, apple, apricot. Beetles hibernate in leaf litter, in cracks of the bark. In some cases, wintering larvae are also present in the upper soil layer.

At an average daily temperature above + 8 ° C in spring, beetles come out and feed on the buds of trees, after which they switch to feeding on fruits, gnawing narrow grooves in them, resulting in the formation of characteristic tubercles - damage sites overgrown with cork tissue.

Females gnaw in the newly-minted fruit recesses with a depth of about 2-3 mm, and lay one or more eggs in them. The female closes the entrance to the recess with her excrement, after which she bites the stem for premature discharge of the fetus. One female lays up to 200 eggs. Goose, damaging the fruit, introduces fruit rot spores into it to cause rotting of the pulp and create optimal conditions for the larvae. A month after hatching, the larvae in the fallen fruit fall on the soil and pupate in it.

Beetles emerge from pupae at the end of summer, either in autumn or next year under adverse conditions (in this case, the larvae fall into diapause). Beetles eat until late autumn. damaging the fruit buds of trees.

Bud weevil (Sciaphobus squalidus Gyll.).

Distributed in the center and in the south of ETR. A pest with a wide range of nutrition damages various woody plants, preferring young plants. Adults do not fly, so most often the pest lesions are local in nature. They hibernate in the soil.

They leave early in the spring, at an average daily temperature above + 6 ° C, go to the branches along the boles, where they eat, gnawing buds, eating leaves and buds. At night, the beetles hide back into the soil.

After the gardens bloom, the females make masonry on the leaves, 100-140 eggs each. When hatching, the larvae fall on the soil and penetrate into it, feeding on plant roots at a depth of 40-60 cm. The larvae feed on two vegetative periods, and at the end of the second they pupate. The appearing bugs are kept in the soil, and come out of it next spring. Thus, the development of this pest lasts about three years.

Apple Blossom (Anthonomus pomorum L.).

Widely distributed in places of cultivation of apple trees. It also sometimes damages the pear. Causes significant damage to gardens, massively damaging buds, especially during prolonged, sparse, stretched flowering of apple trees in cool weather.

Beetles hibernate in various shelters, for example, in cracked bark, leaf litter, hollows, and so on. In early spring, at an average daily air temperature of about + 6 ℃, beetles move from wintering places to trees, where they feed on buds, gnawing narrow and deep holes in them. Droplets of juice stand out from the damage sites, and in case of massive damage this is called "crying kidneys." When buds appear on the trees, the females gnaw holes in them, where they lay one egg each. Each female lays up to 100 eggs. The larvae eat out the internal parts of the buds, glue the petals with excrement, preventing the flower from blooming, the petals turn brown, dry out in the form of caps, creating cradles for pupae. Two to three weeks after the emergence of the larvae, they stop eating and pupate. 7-11 days after pupation, beetles appear, gnaw the cradles and go out to eat leaves, gnawing small holes on them, after which they settle in the garden and hide. Autumn beetles go to wintering places.

Control measures:

In the early spring, trees are treated with systemic insecticides, for example, Aktara or imidacloprid-based drugs. Repeated treatments are carried out after flowering, 1 - 2 times, between treatments about 10 days.

Against weevils, hunting belts soaked with insecticides and worn on stems in early spring are relatively effective. Belts are removed after flowering.

Glue belts are effective against flightless kidney weevil. Also shaking pests from trees onto a film is used, which is carried out in the spring during swelling and budding of the buds, in the early morning, at a temperature below + 10 ℃. Since pests in the mass accumulate in the leaf litter, a clean garden will suffer less from weevils.

Date of article: 12.16.2013

Weevils are divided into two groups

Short-tailed (Adelognatha) - the rostrum is long, its length is more than 2 times the thickness on the base, often it is strongly bent or noticeably thinned to the apex. The lower oral cavity is divided into 2 parts by a narrow or long chin. On the sides of the chin and chin, which does not cover the entire cavity from below, a part of the lower jaws and jaw palps are visible. Labial palps distinct, not covered by chin, part quite long. On the outer front surface of the upper jaws there are no teeth from pupal appendages, which are always absent. The antennae are attached mostly in the middle or closer to the base of the rostrum. Larvae of a greater number of short-tailed animals develop in the soil,

Long proboscis (Phanerognatha) - the rostrum never exceeds 2 lengths of its width on the base, most often straight, usually not round in cross section, not refined to the apex. The lower oral cavity on the base for the most part is not divided into two parts by the sub-chin, the chin has the appearance of a wide and very short protrusion, large, usually completely covering the cavity below, and the palps are not visible. Most labial palps are not developed; if the chin and palps are visible on the sides, the teeth on the upper jaws are distinct. On the upper jaws there are pupal appendages or scars from them, scars only as an exception are absent. The antennae are attached in the apical half of the rostrum, often not at its end. The larvae of the majority of long-toed ones develop inside plant tissues, less often feed on the surface of plant leaves or on soil.

Weevil species

Barn Weevil (Sitophilus granarius) - brown, almost black shiny beetle 2-4 mm long. The wings are underdeveloped, but this does not interfere with its resettlement. Together with grain, it spread throughout the world and became one of the most important barn pests. Females of this species lay up to 300 eggs, one at a time, in rounded caves, gnawed in grains of wheat, barley, rye, less often buckwheat or corn. After laying the egg, the hole in the cave is smeared with female secretions. As a rule, only one elephant larva develops in one grain. Grain is also harmed by adult beetles that eat out irregularly shaped cavities in it. If the grain has many weevils and their larvae, then it becomes completely unfit for food.

Beetroot weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris) - The most dangerous enemy of sugar beets. A rather large beetle, 16 mm long, with a short proboscis and a dense cover of scales, giving the body an ash-gray color, on the elytra there is an oblique dark strip on which there are no scales. Adult beetles overwinter. In the spring, before the appearance of beet sprouts, they feed on weeds, and then move on to crops. It is during this period that their damage is especially dangerous, since beetles, snacking on seedlings, cause their thinning. Larvae of beet weevil also harm, developing in the soil at the roots of beets. Eating, the main root, they stimulate the formation of a large number of lateral roots. The root shape becomes ugly, weight and sugar content are reduced.

Clover weevil (Apion apricans) - dangerous only for sowing clover seeds. Its larvae feed on the ovaries of clover flowers. During the development period of 17-18 days, each larva destroys 9-11 emerging seeds. The larva destroys the same amount of seeds when it enters the receptacle and builds itself a doll cradle there. Adult beetles are common on clover leaves.

Weevil weevil apple-tree (Anthonomus pomorum) - brownish-brown beetle about 4 mm long, dense hairs on elytra form spots and bandages. Overwintered weevils in the spring feed for some time, damaging the buds that open, and with the advent of buds, they begin to lay eggs. At the same time, the female drills a hole in the green unbroken bud with a proboscis and lays one egg there. The larva eats stamens and pestle and glues the petals with its secretions, preventing them from opening. The buds turn brown, dry and fall. Larvae pupate in buds that have already died out, and beetles emerging from pupae attack the fruit set.

Elephant acorn (Curculio glandium) - easy to distinguish by a very long thin and shiny proboscis, the length of which is not inferior to the length of the body. At the end of the proboscis there are small but strong jaws that turn it into a perfect drilling machine. In the fall, when acorns on the oak begin to ripen, female elephants begin to lay eggs. This is where the proboscis becomes necessary; without it, the female cannot reach the internal parts of the fetus. Starting this difficult work, the weevil rises on its feet, bending the proboscis under itself and setting it vertically. Its short front and middle legs do not reach the surface of the acorn by the beginning of drilling, and the beetle is held only by its hind legs resting on its proboscis. It takes 6-8 hours of continuous operation and the hole is ready. Now it remains only to take out the proboscis and lay the egg. But the work of the female does not always end happily. Once the legs slip and the bent proboscis, like a spring, straightens, and the body of the beetle is hanging in the air. He can no longer reach with his short legs to the surface of the acorn, and then only by chance can help avoid death. The larva develops in the stomach, feeding on its embryo and juicy cotyledons. Having reached maturity, gnaws a hole, leaves the acorn and burrows into the soil. Pupa larva in spring.

Fruited Hazel (Curculio nucum) - close to the stomach elephant. His larva is the culprit of empty and "worm" nuts.

Beech Jumper (Rhynchaenus fagi) - black beetle with reddish antennae and paws. Eats beech leaves. Here lives his larva, paving passages in the pulp of a leaf blade. These passages, going from the middle vein to the edge, where they expand greatly, are visible on both sides of the leaf. At this point, the larvae pupate. Adult beetles overwinter.

Turkish skosar (Otiorrhynchus turca) - refers to a group of elephants living in the soil. This species is common in the northwest of the Caucasus. Beetles of this species cannot fly, because their elytra have grown together, and the wings have completely disappeared. Females live very long. Having appeared in the middle of summer, they lay eggs in the soil, which develop without fertilization, survive until autumn, winter, and in spring, after a period of feeding on grape leaves, they are again able to lay eggs. Elephant larvae eat grape roots and cause noticeable damage.

Sharp-winged elephant (Euidosomus acuminatus) - slender, elongated oval beetles. The body is 3-6 mm long, black, densely covered with light green, bluish or golden scales, elytra with thin and protruding hairs. The length of the rostrum is slightly less than its width, the antennal grooves are angularly curved at the base and directed under the eyes, hardly noticeable from above. Pronotum slightly transverse, moderately rounded laterally, densely covered with small dots. Elytra slightly squeezed laterally, usually pterygoid elevated along suture. The antennae are long and thin. Males differ sharply from females in the structure of the hind tibia, as well as in strongly curved anterior tibia and narrower elytra without processes at the apex.

The species inhabits more or less saline areas of dry steppes. Beetles appear in early May and remain high in numbers, at least until the end of the second decade of June.

Water Elephant (Amalus haemorrhous) - larvae of this species develop in the stems of aquatic plants. This is a small (1.5-1.8 mm) yellowish beetle whose body is densely covered with non-wettable hairs. If you throw it on the surface of the water, then it not only does not sink, but does not even get wet. Having flattered a little, the beetle rises to its feet and walks freely on the water, since the legs of its legs are covered with water-repellent felt. The beetle can travel under water. To do this, he firmly clings his feet to the plants and, overcoming the buoyancy of the water, goes down into the pond. But as soon as he disengages, he, like a cork, floats to the surface. Elephant larvae drill the passages inside the stems and are also often found under the surface of the water. The tissues of aquatic plants are so rich in air cavities that the larvae do not feel a lack of air.

Elephant pine (Hylobius abietis) - Among the forest species of elephants, this is one of the most harmful in coniferous forests. The beetle reaches a length of 10-12 mm, brown with an obscure light pattern of yellowish scales, forming two transverse stripes on the elytra. Larvae of this species develop most often under the bark of the basal part of the stumps of conifers and do no harm. In the spring, the bugs that appeared in the mass rush to the young pine trees. Gnawing sections of the bark on young shoots, elephants can completely destroy young trees.

Bukark Elephant (Coenorrhinus pauxillus) - seriously harms gardens. This is a small, about 1.8-3 mm blue weevil. Its larvae develop in petioles and leaf parenchyma, causing them to fall. But the main harm is caused by beetles, which in spring proboscis buds and buds of apple, pear, plum and other breeds, eating ovary and stamens in the flower, and young tender leaves in the bud.

Goose Elephant (Rhynchites bacchus) - harms the apple tree, pear, cherry, sweet cherry, plum, peach and apricot. It is larger than bukarka, reaches a length of 4-7 mm. The body is shiny, copper-red, the rostrum, the antennae and legs are purple. Beetles appear in early spring and first feed on buds, then eat out buds and pulp of leaves, and even later prick fruit. At the same time, the beetles begin to lay their eggs. Having chosen the fetus, the female gnaws a small chamber in its pulp, places the egg there and covers the hole with excrement. At the same time, fungi causing fruit rot are introduced into the wound. If these fungi do not get into the wound, the elephant larva does not develop. Damaged fruits rot and fall to the ground. Their falling also contributes to the fact that the female, when laying eggs, gnaws at the peduncle supporting the fetus. After a month, having reached maturity, the larva leaves the fetus and pupates in the soil.

Point Sling (Pissodes notatus) - during feeding, the beetle immerses the proboscis into the deeper layers of the bark, and outside on the pine trunks there is only a small hole through which the resin is released. Larvae of Smolevka, unlike the larvae of a large pine elephant, develop, although on weak, but quite viable trees, leading to their death. The female lays eggs in the cortex in a few pieces, while the larvae gnaw out expanding passages in the cortex, ending in a chamber where the larva pupates.

Pine cone (Pissodes validirostris) - develops in pine cones. In spring, beetles feed on annual cones, gnawing the flesh of their scales, then the females lay several eggs in the cone. For a month, the larvae greatly destroy the inside of the cones and pupate here. With massive damage to the cones, the seed yield decreases by more than 2 times.

Birch pipe drill (Deporaus betulae) or the black - if in the summer you carefully examine the young birch, then you can almost certainly find curled sheets on it. The beetle itself is brilliantly black, 4 mm long, with a relatively short proboscis, found immediately on the leaves. It is interesting to observe how he prepares tightly folded leaves (“cigars”) for the development of larvae, and you only have to wonder how cleverly and accurately he does it. A fresh leaf cannot be folded to a weak bug. Therefore, he begins by cutting the leaf plate at the base on both sides up to the median vein, which he does not touch. These cuts have a strictly defined shape. A puffed plate easily lends itself to the efforts of a beetle, which first twists one half of it and then pulls and wraps the other around it. Having finished work, the beetle breaks into the “cigar” and lays several eggs there. Everything seems to be over. But even after this, the beetle strengthens its structure for some time, tightens the edges and the tip of its bundle more tightly, so that its internal parts longer retain the moisture reserve necessary for the larvae. It would seem that a person does not need much work to make two cuts on a sheet with the help of scissors and twist the same cigar. But this is not so simple, as the sheet unfolds again. Mathematicians, having studied the shape of the pipe-cut incisions, found that beetles do this in accordance with certain mathematical laws. To calculate the shape of the incisions that ensure tight folding of the sheet, a person would need to apply some of the laws of higher mathematics. Pipelines collapse instinctively, mechanically performing all the necessary actions, inheriting the experience of many previous generations in this behavior.

Oak pipe drill (Attelabus nitens) - damages oak leaves. This elephant does not roll up the entire sheet, but only the edge of the leaf blade. Its short construction is in the shape of a barrel.

Pipeline green (Byctiscus betulae) - a relative of the birch pipeliner. It damages many deciduous trees, as well as grapes. This beetle gnaws at once the entire young shoot, and the wilted leaves alternately cut and twist.

Furrow groove (Cossonus linearis) - a dark brown beetle with a flattened body 6-8 mm long. Its larvae prefer strongly decayed hardwood.

Signs of damage to the weevil plant

Damage to indoor plants occurs after their summer keeping in the fresh air.

If we are talking about an adult insect, then at the edges of the leaves you can observe the characteristic semicircular corroded areas. If this is his larvae living in the soil, then the pest can be determined only after a sudden withering and death of the plant, since its roots or stalk are eaten up or completely cracked.

Weevil Control Methods

If you lead a nocturnal life like weevils, then you can light a plant with a lantern, shake and collect all the bugs.

In case of defeat by larvae of weevils, if the root system is not yet completely eaten, i.e. the plant has just begun to fade, water the soil with a systemic insecticide (Fufan, Inta-vir, etc.) and treat the leaves. After it is better to transplant the plant into fresh soil.