Reproduction is the most important biological period in the annual cycle of birds. With the onset of this period, significant physiological changes occur in their body, as well as in their behavior and appearance. The reproductive system begins to function intensely, its activity is accompanied by a strong change in the entire reproductive apparatus.
At rest, the sex glands are ten times smaller in size than during reproduction. For example, the weight of the testes in a domestic rooster increases to 20%, and that of a domestic quail - up to 22%. The ovary also grows significantly and resembles a bunch of ripe grapes, where the “berries” are thin-walled vesicles containing an egg. When the egg ripens, the vesicle bursts, the egg enters from it into the oviduct, where it is fertilized. After this, the development of the embryo begins, which at the time of egg laying has the form of a disk and is two adjacent cell layers that merge along the edges with the yolk. At this, the growth of the embryo is suspended and begins to develop again when incubated.
When the yolk passes through the oviduct of the gland of the latter, a thick shell of protein is secreted, then the egg is covered with a soft, leathery shell-shell and a hard calcareous shell.
In the sexual cycle of birds, external differences between males and females are of great importance. They allow the selection of producers when picking the parent herd. Sexual dimorphism in poultry can be expressed in size, color of plumage or other features of the appearance of males and females. Males usually outnumber females, plumage in males is brighter than in females. The latter often have a pronounced patronizing coloration (for example, female quails and pheasants). Differences in the color of the sexes occur not only in the plumage, but also in other parts of the body - the beak, the iris, the bare parts of the skin, etc. Sexual dimorphism is observed in male guinea fowl and turkeys in the form of outgrowths and appendages of the skin on the head, roosters have spurs on the legs, the pheasants - a bright color plumage, bare parts of the head and long tail feathers. The gander has a skin fold under the beak.
All poultry are brood type breeding. They lay eggs in nests, incubate them, take care of chicks, which, as soon as they dry after hatching, leave the nest with the females. As a result, the safety of young animals in birds is higher compared to reptiles, and the number of chicks in one brood, on the contrary, is less.
The breeding technique of domestic chicken and waterfowl (geese and ducks) has much in common, only the rearing of young animals has some differences.
So, almost all types of poultry under suitable conditions can lay eggs almost all year round, interrupted only during molting. They are more productive than wild species in nature or placed in enclosures. However, in wild species, meat is usually tastier than in poultry; therefore, in some farms in recent decades, a hybrid form of an ordinary pheasant, called a hunting pheasant, has been bred for meat. The method of breeding it is not much different from breeding poultry.
Why is it profitable to breed birds?
Poultry farming can easily be called a profitable business, the reason for this is a number of significant advantages:
- ease of breeding
- high demand for poultry,
- the opportunity to realize not only meat, but also feather and eggs,
- you can even sell litter as an environmental fertilizer,
- People are keen to purchase proven products.
Agriculture is in great demand today.
Which bird is profitable to breed for business?
The most pressing issue for every farmer. Therefore, to begin with, you need to draw up a detailed business plan. Based on it, you can begin to implement your ideas.
Studying which bird is profitable to breed at home, you should immediately take a closer look at chickens, geese and ducks. The reason for the wide demand is the ease of breeding, the unpretentiousness of birds, an affordable price. However, the number of such farms is growing rapidly every year, so to achieve high results will have to make a lot of effort.
Another option, which bird is profitable to breed for the farmer, will be exotic birds. These include pheasants, ostriches and quails. However, it is worthwhile to understand that these individuals will have to work hard. Birds are more demanding, they need special attention and nutrition. In addition, the purchase of chicks will cost much higher. But the pluses here are also significant - a wider demand for meat and eggs.
Thinking about which bird is profitable to breed at home, many people agree to take the risk and decide to breed parrots. If we are talking about small breeds, then there will certainly be a demand for them. In addition, the business can be organized even in an ordinary multi-room apartment. But with expensive species of parrots will have to seriously suffer.
Most often they are quite finicky, requires special care and nutrition. In addition, the price tag for them is also overpriced, as a result, demand is minimal. Not everyone can afford to buy a bird for 30,000 rubles. Therefore, when deciding to start breeding parrots, for a start it is worth exploring the demand market.
Documents for the poultry farm
Any business involves the collection of necessary documentation. Therefore, you have to run around to get the right papers. So, poultry farming implies the presence of a veterinary certificate and a certificate of quality, without them it is simply impossible to sell meat.
A thorough study of the sales market allows you to find the most profitable way to organize sales. For especially advanced farmers, an excellent option would be to open their own store. Here he will be able to exhibit all available goods. However, there is also a more simplified option - selling in stores. It is enough to acquire a customer base and deliver the goods to them within the specified time.
However, it is important to understand the meat for sale must be appropriate. Therefore, it will be necessary to carefully study not only the aspects of keeping and feeding birds, but also to study the competent technology of slaughter.
Organization of production requires appropriate investments. So, at the initial stage, you need to think about the place of keeping birds. It is most correct to rent it, because the construction will cost much more. In addition, it will require a special investment of time, which will also play a minus to the development of the business.
Construction should begin after the start of production, and then, only if it really begins to bring a steady income to its owner.
After it is found, the room will need to be reconstructed, and then be engaged in its improvement. At the initial stage, you just can not do without the following purchases:
- appliances for heating, especially when it comes to the cold season,
- equipment for cleaning the barn.
The amount of inventory needed must be calculated based on the total production volume.
The acquisition of birds and feed
Buying birds and feed require a trusted supplier. It is important to be sure that the quality of the goods meets all the requirements. Of course, you can turn to the Internet for help and find more affordable prices, but when it comes to large volumes, taking risks is clearly not worth it.
As for profitability, it all depends on a number of factors. Therefore, as mentioned above, without a thorough business plan is simply not enough. One thing is for sure, poultry farming is most beneficial in rural areas.
Costs really quickly pay off only if the livestock is not less than 500 goals. Otherwise, it will take a very long time to get real money. And buying 500 individuals requires a good start-up capital.
With the right approach, it will be possible to make a profit two years after the start of the business. And if, in addition to meat and eggs, actively practice the sale of feathers and litter, the payback will come even earlier.
To succeed in this matter, it is enough to study the main aspects of the maintenance of chickens and purchase them high-quality food. Breeding chickens today is one of the most popular areas in the agricultural business. After all, often in addition to meat from birds, you can also get eggs and feathers. As for the breeds of chickens, it is important to study the breeding climate, as well as the main advantages and disadvantages of each individual.
Each business has its own subtleties, only after gaining experience, it will be possible to achieve good results. Today, the most popular is breeding chickens, because with them you can get much more benefit. As for ducks and turkeys, here the main aspect goes exclusively to meat.
An obvious plus of breeding birds is the availability of feed and the possibility of saving. So, with the onset of heat and before the cold snap, the birds can be fed various plants, vegetables and root crops that germinate on the site. It is important to note that such a balanced diet will allow you to achieve dietary meat, which is especially appreciated among buyers.
If the focus is exclusively on meat, then it is worth taking a closer look at broiler breeding. Already after 50 days, the birds gain the necessary mass and are ready for slaughter. The start of production can begin in an old barn or outbuilding, and after a while, build a house. However, broilers have a big minus, unlike ordinary chickens, they are more susceptible to various diseases.
But food is also not difficult, as was said earlier, various greens are available at each site, it remains only to purchase cereals that are sold, and at any hardware store.
If you have a large plot, you can organize walking, so the birds will be able to move independently, and most importantly find all the necessary elements and vitamins.
Poultry breeding as a business can become a profitable business, because today people value quality and environmental friendliness more. They want to buy safer products. Everyone knows that many poultry farms use chemical additives to accelerate growth and increase egg production. This is rare in home production.
Ducks and geese
These birds are also popular among farmers. Birds do not require special feeds or additives. Their diet consists of vegetation and grain. However, their content has also disadvantages - the presence of a large territory for walking. For full growth, they need to move a lot, which means that they just can’t do without a large pasture.
In addition, it is worth remembering the love of birds for water. For complete comfort, they simply need a reservoir. This is especially important in the hot season. If there is no way to create a reservoir, you can restrict yourself to an ordinary trough.
As for the breeds of ducks, it is better to give preference to the Peking or Bashkir breed, they are gaining mass faster and unpretentious in maintenance. But among geese, Italian or North German are in demand.
If the farmer in his possession has a large pasture, then the choice of birds in front of him is simply huge. However, what about those with limited territory. In this case, there is also a solution - quail breeding. These birds are the most compact for breeding in a small area. About 50 heads can easily be placed on one square meter.
Walking is also not a prerequisite, although it is better to try to organize it. After 2.5 months, an adult grows out of the little chick, ready for slaughter. Carcass weight usually does not exceed 300 grams. However, it is worth remembering the high dietary qualities. It is at the expense of their bird is in demand.
Birds quickly gain weight, and their meat is of high quality. However, they are one of the most capricious birds, and also often pick up various diseases. The farmer must arrange for them a warm, draft-protected room. Moreover, they also need a place to walk, otherwise they will slowly gain mass.
Although it is worth noting, experienced farmers do not bother such difficulties at all. Moreover, the demand for meat of this poultry has especially increased recently. Many people are interested in purchasing dietary meat, and if the product also has an environmental demand, it will certainly appear. For the first time in two years, you can recoup all costs and begin to receive stable revenue.
In turkeys, the maternal instinct is seriously developed, they tend to hatch eggs, which is also a significant plus for the farmer.
Recently, ostrich farming has also begun to gain momentum, despite its exoticism. Moreover, to grow an adult ostrich is equivalent to the weight of an ordinary pig, despite the fact that the feed will go for it several times less. And in terms of quality and taste, it is superior to chicken. Exotic bird eggs are also in the black. One egg can replace 25 chicken.
Plus, ostriches have good immunity, they rarely catch diseases. Birds easily adapt to any conditions of detention, does not require special care. After 10 months, the bird is ready for slaughter. It is also important to note the non-waste production.
Not only meat and eggs are valued, but also fat, feathers, and even the shell of ostrich eggs. Of the last two, various interior items and decorations are actively made. In addition, the farm can be made a place for excursions.
Many people, especially children will be interested to look at these birds, feed and learn something new about them. Therefore, things can quickly go in a year and bear fruit.
Poultry farming as a business requires attention and careful consideration of all the nuances. It is important to set goals for yourself and occupy a suitable niche. In addition, carefully study the analysis of the market, understand which product will be the most profitable. It is important to remember that in order to succeed you must always make an effort. So, with the right approach, after a couple of years, any undertakings can be turned into a successful business.
Download a ready-made business plan for growing birds
The average cost of 1 kg of chicken in the store is 100 rubles, goose - 250 rubles, duck - 190 rubles. Sale of a dozen eggs at retail - 50-60 rubles. But calculating profits is only a pleasant part of selling a business. For poultry farming to start working, you should download a business plan for breeding birds in a private economy.
Interesting fact. The basis of the plan for the poultry breeding business is the same, but the nuances for raising chickens for meat or layers, feeding geese or ducks are different.
Take the classic laying hens complete with broilers for meat production as the basis. As a continuation of the marketing plan, include the subsequent production of home-made meat delicacies after the investment in poultry has paid off.
Example home breeding business plan
The ready business plan for poultry farming and egg sales contains several points:
- analysis of competitors and profitability of the idea,
- calculation of primary investments for the purchase of equipment and poultry,
- selection of assortment for starting a business,
- “Smart marketing” for long-term contracts,
- selection of a legal entity registration form and tax system,
- analysis of the necessary staff and its selection,
- expected result in money
- possible risks.
In order not to be mistaken in drawing up your own strategy, take as a basis the following ready-made business plan for growing poultry at home with calculations.
Relevance of ideas with competitor analysis
The profitability of poultry farming in the garden with plans for the subsequent expansion of production is about 70%. The payback rate depends on the type of bird chosen and the calculation of the planned profit:
- sexually mature laying hens produce about 250 eggs per year,
- weight of a layer - up to 2 kg, poultry meat - up to 5 kg,
- the weight of the duck is up to 3 kg, and the productivity of one duck is 150 eggs per year,
- an adult goose weighs 5 kg, a goose produces 60 eggs per season, supplying the host with down (up to 700 g).
It will take a lot less money to buy chickens than ducks or geese. But in order to decide who to choose, analyze the market.
Analysis of consumer demands and the choice of a suitable bird
Understanding what the customer wants is easy. See which products are most often bought in stores. What is higher demand. How many offers from suppliers in this market of food products. And remember that starting is always worth it with one thing.
For example, chicken is considered dietary meat. About 80% of the inhabitants of Russia eat 1 chicken egg per day, given that they are added to other food products. The cost of one kg of meat is from 100 rubles. It is permissible to sell carcasses or individual parts (fillet, wings, hips).
Hens are adapted to any climatic conditions. Equipping a chicken coop is easy. Therefore, take as a basis a sample business plan for breeding poultry - chickens.
Analysis of competition in the region
View maps of the region. Calculate how many chicken farms are in the area or in neighboring cities. Analyze if there is government support and a subsidy program for the development of poultry farming and poultry farming.
After analysis, decide if you can offer high-quality products? Arrange with multiple outlets for subsequent deliveries. It is better to have 1-2 clients in advance for a quick start from scratch.
Cost Plan Example
Breeding chickens is a profitable business requiring about 230 thousand rubles for the purchase and maintenance of 50 laying hens. Where do the numbers come from? Below is a table with the necessary expenses that helps to draw up a plan for opening a bird breeding farm:
|Calculation of 50 goals of laying hens|
|Name||Price for 1 pc. (kg)||Qty||Amount|
|Buying chickens||110||50||5 500|
|Bird food||10 per 1 kg||1850 (1 chicken eats 37 kg per year)||18 500|
|The construction of the chicken coop||200000||1||200 000|
The table does not include the employee’s salary, funds for opening an IP or peasant farm (15,000 rubles), as well as monthly expenses for electricity for heating a small farm. On average, the amount of initial investments increases to 400,000 rubles.
Payback is calculated from the egg production of the selected breed. On average, one chicken gives up to 270 eggs per year. With 50 goals, 1350 scores will be obtained in 12 months. The cost of one 10-ka - from 70 to 100 p. Profit - up to 135 000 rubles per year.
Experts advise purchasing chickens from the age of 3-4 months, as chickens begin to hatch from 5-6 months.
Selection of laying hens
When choosing chickens as the basis for the implementation of a business idea, it is worth considering their breeds. The most common with high productivity are:
- Leghorn. For a year it gives up to 371 eggs with a weight of each 54 g. Chicks begin to hatch at 17-20 weeks. Even in winter, egg production is maintained. The average weight of a layer is up to 1.7 kg. Rooster - up to 2.5 kg.
- White Russian belongs to the hybrid of Leggorn and Russian chickens. On average, they give up to 240 eggs per year. The mass of one piece is up to 56 grams. The weight of the chicken is up to 1.7 kg, the male - up to 2.6 kg.
- Broken Brown is the most egg-laying breed. Giving up to 320 eggs per year. Birds calmly tolerate Russian winters, able to rush in frosty weather. The egg mass is up to 64 g, the weight of adults is up to 2 and up to 3 kg. Rush start at 5.5 months.
For the organization of a farm for the production of chicken eggs, these breeds are more often chosen. They are acclimatized to the Russian climate, able to rush year-round, do not require specialized feed.
Assortment of finished products
The fruits of labor from the implemented sample business plan of poultry farming are:
- eggs, each of which must bear a quality stamp indicating the product class,
- Chicken meat undergoing examination for admission to sale,
- chicks with a report from veterinarians.
Any food products are required to undergo quality control for admission to sale. It is forbidden to sell eggs or meat without expertise.
Choosing a place for breeding birds, room requirements
Creating a chicken coop is the main stage in the implementation of a strategic plan for business development. It must be located on a flat plot of land, taking into account the number of goals. It is possible to keep laying hens on roosts or in cages. Other requirements include:
- minimum area for 4-5 goals - 1 m²,
- the perch should be at a level of 60-90 cm from the floor,
- the size of the wooden beam for perch - 4x5 cm,
- the distance between the horizontal bars is at least 25 cm,
- the perch should not prevent the birds from moving around the chicken coop,
- 4-5 hens need one perch,
- the entrance to the chicken coop should be equipped with a manhole with a height of up to 20-30 cm,
- cover the floor with straw, withstand temperature conditions and ensure the supply of oxygen to the chicken coop.
On the Internet you can download free chicken house projects of the right size and design. If you do not want to engage in construction yourself, you can turn to the services of professionals. Additional costs must be included in the calculation of the business.
Point of sales: requirements and cross
The opening plan for the production of eggs includes a quality control point, where experts put a stamp on each egg, and sales options for the finished product. To points of sale it is easy to carry:
- own store
- word of mouth - sale to friends at the start,
- restaurants, cafeterias and canteens,
- large retail chains
- wholesalers and retail food outlets.
In the finished example of a business plan, additional points for selling eggs are indicated - the production of various food products. This product is added to the dough, pastries, semi-finished products.
Registration of legal entities
To start production, you must open and register a legal entity. When breeding birds on a subsidiary plot, it is reasonable to choose the option of a peasant farm or an individual entrepreneur.
At the start, it is advisable to choose a tax system simplified. Where tax is paid at a rate of 15% on the difference between income and expenses or 6% on all income.
For registration, you will need to pay state fees and submit documents to the tax authorities, the Pension Fund of Russia and the Socialist Parties. It is advisable to contact the professionals who draw up the necessary paper, "without leaving the office."
Minimum staff: selection and hiring of employees
An approximate development plan for a company necessarily includes the minimum number of employees that are necessary for raising chickens and selling goods. Even with a farm of 50 goals, caring for birds is difficult.
Experts advise hiring 2 people to "look after" the birds, one accountant, an additional driver or seller. Often, for the protection of the poultry farm, a post and a booth with a dog are required, which will scare away animals and birds hunting for chicks.
Effective Ways to Increase Sales: Marketing Strategy
At the beginning of the development of the poultry farm, you need to draw up a plan for advertising and product promotion. There are several ways to promote home-made chicken eggs:
- create a website and groups in social networks,
- place an ad in a print newspaper,
- personally ring outlets
- send commercial offers via e-mail.
As the company develops, you can contact the studio, which will quickly promote the product in the global network. And also hire a marketer by selecting him by resume on specialized job sites.
An example of calculating business profitability includes costs and revenues. The average payback period of a small poultry farm is 2 years (season), taking into account the purchase of chickens at the age of 3-4 months and a supply of feed for 12 months in advance.
On average, income from one chicken coop per 50 goals is 100 - 120 thousand rubles per season. When choosing an egg breed and with the correct organization of the sales market, you can increase profitability to 150-170 thousand rubles.
In this case, it is important to take into account the strategic moves to expand the activities of the company and possible risks. For example, in a frosty year, egg production decreases.
Common Errors and Risks
It is not enough to fully understand the topic of how to draw up a business plan for poultry farming at home. Potential risks, incurring losses and even a complete loss of start-up capital must be taken into account.
In poultry farms, force majeure includes:
- dangerous diseases that "eat" the number of birds
- attacks of predatory animals that reduce the number of goals,
- improper feeding, leading to a drop in egg production,
- improper storage and transportation of eggs.
Other troubles can easily be attributed to a lack of a sales market, an underestimated or overestimated price for the final product, or incorrect preparation of a cost plan.
Tips for beginner poultry farmers
For 100% implementation of your business plan, prepare:
- additional stock of investments - it is recommended to lay 10-15% more than what appears in the cost table,
- a sea of patience - there is no instant profit in any business field,
- the ability to listen to the advice of experienced farmers,
- talent in recruiting and finding partners.
Carefully work through each item in the bird breeding business plan. Choose the correct breed of birds. Analyze the market, perhaps in the region goose meat is much more valuable than classic eggs. Consult experienced business people from other areas.
The more time you devote to planning, the lower the percentage of errors made.
Poultry farming as a home business
► Capital investments: about 260,000 rubles. ► Business payback: 10-12 months.
- Since half of the animal products in supermarkets are grown under unnatural conditions, confidence in it is rapidly declining.
- Thereby poultry breeding as a business quite relevant at present, because interest in organic food is growing.
- This enables small-scale livestock farming to enter markets on a larger scale.
- The advantage of breeding specifically birds over other animals is that in addition to dietary meat, you can sell eggs.
- This will increase the reach of potential customers and, consequently, the profit from such a household.
- Another important advantage of poultry farming is that this business does not require large expenses, but its profitability is quite high.
- Especially with agricultural skills and a small plot in rural areas.
How does poultry farming begin as a business?
- To begin with, you need to decide what exactly will be produced for sale.
- If you focus on selling meat, you should understand that consumption will be higher than when deciding to sell only eggs.
- Indeed, in order for the bird to reach the desired size, and the meat to be tasty and healthy, it must be fed with special feeds and food additives.
- Analysis of competition and all opportunities for poultry farming (financial, etc.). Based on these data, you need to choose the direction in which the economy will work.
- The process of registration and registration of the enterprise.
- Household moments (construction and equipment of the house).
- Calculation of financial investments in the business (initial and monthly costs).
- Poultry profitability (payback period and approximate profit calculation).
What registration is required to breed birds?
- It is much more difficult to register a food business than any other, since everything will need to be organized according to sanitary standards, and all carcasses or batches of eggs must be certified.
- But first, a poultry entrepreneur must be registered as an IP or LLC.
- The first option for a poultry breeding business is preferable, as it will simplify the accounting of the enterprise and reduce tax deductions.
- It is also necessary to choose the form and type of activity, according to the OKVED codes.
- Please note that poultry farming qualifies as a type of agriculture.
- This "plays into the hands" of the entrepreneur, as it will reduce the tax costs of the business.
- Since obtaining all other permits is a lengthy process, it should be entrusted to an experienced specialist (hire a lawyer).
What are the requirements for a place for poultry farming?
- Since most often they start breeding birds for sale on their own site, it is worth remembering that there are certain requirements for the territory for poultry farming as a home business.
|It requires the equipment of the premises with all the necessary communications. Inside should be placed cells with drinking bowls and other amenities. Note: this method is more suitable for broilers.||It will be necessary to build an aviary, with an area that will be enough for walking the entire flock.|
- It is very important to understand that if there is little space for animals, discomfort will lead not only to a deterioration in their health, but also to conflicts between individuals.
- The place for poultry farming should be quiet and located far from the road, due to the fact that loud sounds and constant noise will cause stress in the flock.
- It is also desirable that the plot has vegetation, at least small.
- If it is not there initially, then you can always plant something.
What poultry equipment is needed?
- The key equipment for the poultry business is the aviary.
- The construction of an aviary does not require special architectural knowledge.
- It is quite possible to build it yourself, and on the Internet to find many interesting layouts and ideas for this.
|Aviary for poultry||55 000|
|Chick Incubators||35 000|
|Installation of drinking bowls and feeders||7 000|
|Lamps for heating||30 000|
|Aviary care equipment||5 000|
Which employees to choose for this type of business?
- It’s unrealistic to keep track of so many animals, even with the necessary knowledge and experience.
- In any case, poultry farming on a large scale will have to hire additional staff.
- Indeed, in addition to economic activity, there are many organizational and financial issues that the farm owner should deal with.
|Bird Care Specialist||2||10 000|
Also, for the conduct of business, courier services may be needed if you do not have your own transport for transporting poultry.
How to find outlets for poultry products?
- There are many options for marketing.
- One of the most primitive is the sale of meat and eggs on the market.
- In order to put an end to the market, you do not need a lot of documents, since all the necessary certificates are already issued during the registration of the farm.
- The rental point itself is also inexpensive.
What investments are required in poultry farming as a home business?
- Capital investments in poultry farming, as well as monthly ones, directly depend on which bird to breed (different species require different care) and how many heads will be on the farm.
- For example, breeding quails does not require a lot of space.
- But they are choosy in feed, and need careful care, because all small animals are especially susceptible to disease.
Starting investments in poultry farming
“Start small. If things go well, build a bigger position. ”George Soros
|Acquisition of a young livestock (200 pcs.)||from 70 000|
|Home Improvement||182 000|
|Other poultry expenses||from 5 000|
Monthly bird breeding costs
|Feed purchase (calculation for 200 goals)||from 25 000|
|Payment of utility services||10 000|
|Employee Salary Costs||from 20 000|
|Other expenses||from 5000|
In addition to stable costs, it is worth considering that sometimes additional services, such as vaccinations, transportation, etc., may be needed.
What is the profitability of breeding birds at home?
If you take into account the breeding of poultry for the sale of eggs, then the profit from poultry farming on average can be:
|Egg sale||from 6000 / per year||from 50 rubles / per dozen||300 000 rubles / year|
- Selling meat brings a much higher income.
- But to calculate it is at least approximately possible only if you know what kind of bird species and how much poultry farming is involved.
- On the features of conducting such a type of business as poultry farming,
- described in more detail in the video:
Business Idea: Poultry
Poultry farming is currently considered one of the leading livestock industries in Russia. Demand is consistently high, every day it only increases, and it is definitely not going to fall in the coming years. There is quite a lot of competition, but you should not be upset because of this, because there will be enough buyers for everyone.
In Russia, poultry farming is:
- more than 650 industrial organizations,
- 425 factories producing egg products,
- 130 factories are breeding broilers,
- 50 companies are engaged in breeding,
- 12 farms specialize in growing geese,
- 9 farms exclusively breed ducks,
- 5 are involved in turkeys,
- 3 - quails.
This list contains large farms where birds are fed with special food, which gives an unprecedented increase in weight; in pursuit of profit, farms contain birds not in the most favorable conditions for their life. And therefore, knowing this, ordinary people are increasingly inclined to buy organic food: they want to be sure that there is no chemistry in their meat, and the bird was completely happy and healthy.
So, poultry farming is divided into 2 types of species according to its goals: meat and egg.
Meat poultry farming
As for meat production, meat can be obtained from all types of poultry: broilers, quails, ducks, turkeys, indochki, geese and so on. Top breeding birds are broilers, turkeys and geese.
Undisputed sales leaders are broilers. They are grown exclusively for meat. They gain their marketable weight in the shortest possible time, which cannot but please amateur businessmen, and due to the demand for them they bring good income. At the same time, this allows updating the stock of young animals every month so that the business is stable all year round.
Broilers are bred in 3 ways:
- They buy hatching eggs, but in this case there is a risk that some chicks will not hatch. The cost of 1 incubation egg is about 9 rubles apiece.
- They buy very tiny babies who are only 7 days old, but you should carefully check these chicks for health. Chicks must be active, respond well to sound, stand firmly on their legs, eyes should be shiny and free of plaque, the chicken’s stomach should be resilient, not swollen, the umbilical cord should not bleed, and the skin in front should not sag. The price of such chickens is about 35-90 rubles. The older the chicken, the more it costs.
- The 3rd method is self-breeding of offspring. If you plan to breed them, then you should buy chicks of 2 sexes, and their meat does not differ from each other.
For a start it’s worth register own business, as "Breeding of agricultural birds", the form of activity is peasant farms, taxation is the Unified Agricultural tax.
As for the place for dwellings, then you can build a chicken farm in your summer cottage with an internal size of 42 by 20 meters, the walls can be made of cinder concrete with the addition of sawdust, this will save a lot of money, because such walls combine price and strength with maximum thermal insulation. The ceilings can be covered with a croaker and insulated with a mixture of sawdust and expanded clay. The roof itself must be made to bevel in order to avoid failures during heavy rainfall in the winter. Roofing material is tin. It is also necessary to build a nearby place for walking.
In terms of stern Broilers are inherently omnivorous; they can feed on leftovers from the table. In summer they eat grass and small grains that are in the ground. They also feed on compound feed. The cost of one bag of 40 kg is from about 700 to 1,200 rubles.
In order to deliver its products to markets and other points of sale is necessary truck. At the initial stage, your personal transport will be enough, the luggage compartment will be enough to transport a small batch of broilers.
Poultry farming as a home business is good because it does not require a large number of personnel. It is only enough to consult a veterinarian sometimes to examine animals. And broilers are not the most difficult creatures to breed, they do not need to be around the clock, so a single person is enough.
Expenses and income
- Registration of peasant farms, paperwork - 3 000 rubles.
- Building materials for the house - up to 30 000 rubles, it all depends on the size and conditions.
- Communication to the house (water, light). Daylight lamps, drinking bowls, hose - 6,000 rubles.
- Equipping the house with drinking bowls, feeders, thermometers, ventilation, compartments for chickens up to a month of age and older - 30 000 rubles.
- The plucking machine - 20,000 rubles.
- Purchase of chicks - 10 000 rubles.
- Purchase of feed, supplements, vitamins for broilers of different ages - 50 000 rubles.
- Freezer - 35,000 if there are problems with the sale of products as soon as possible after slaughter.
- Unforeseen expenses - 30,000 rubles.
During the year, peasant farms can sell 1,200 broilers per year, if the young growth is monthly. The price for a carcass of a farm broiler is 180-220 rubles per kg, 1 carcass can reach 2-3 kg, that is, only from the 1st chicken can you get an average of 500 rubles. In this case, your business will fully pay off for the first year. From the 2nd year it will bring only profit.
In conclusion of the conversation about broilers, it is worth noting that it is unprofitable to keep broilers for more than 3-4 months. The greater the weight of the chicken, the more difficult it is to sell it and save money for food. Leaving adults is worth it only if they give eggs for further renewal of young animals.
Turkey meat on the Russian market is also very popular, because it is one of the most dietary types of meat. And their weight reaches 17 kg! What is not a profitable business?
Highly profitable business can be organized on growing turkey, which will pay off in 12 months or earlier. In this case, the risk is minimal, and competition in the market is low, in contrast to the production of chicken meat and eggs.
Such an investment is also attractive because of the low threshold for entering this business. 100 thousand rubles will be enough to grow a trial livestock, and the first profit will begin in 5-6 months.
Here it is impractical to build cells for them, given the weight and size they possess. The only thing they need is an extensive range, so their meat will be less fat. As a dwelling, they only need a canopy and bedding. They tolerate cold well.
In the birdhouse, perches (thick bars) must be installed at a height of about 80 cm, so that 40 cm of free space is left for each bird. For every 5 layers, you will need to provide 1 slot.
For convenience, you can arrange them in 2 tiers, installing in the darkest places of the house. The optimal size of the nest is 50 by 70 cm, a convenient height is 60 cm, it is additionally desirable to build a sill at the entrance to the nest.
It is desirable to arrange the males separately from the females.
The most difficult period in their breeding is the age of up to a month, they will have to tinker with. First, they need to be kept in a box where the bottom is covered with small shavings or straw (on a newspaper, the paws of the poultry go round and get injured).
Secondly, it is necessary to maintain 37 degrees of heat in the room, and round-the-clock lighting is also needed. Thirdly, they will have to be drunk 2-3 times a day, and only with warm water. The last point will be that the digestive tract of the chicks has a need for disinfection, for this you will need a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
For young animals, mash ups are suitable as feed, but adults should be given full-fledged feed.
In order to obtain eggs, of course, mainly chicken is grown. True, many bred ducks and quails for this purpose. Eggs are one of the main sources of animal protein for the population.
Keeping and raising chickens for eggs is a universal business that can easily adapt to the conditions of the suburbs or rural areas: a large area or complex expensive equipment is not required for the construction of the house.
Of course, in the village, the availability of a free feed base and the possibility of equipping spacious aviaries for walking poultry contribute to increasing profitability, however, even with cage maintenance exclusively on compound feeds, this type of activity can bring a good income to the farmer.
In order for the chickens to rush, you should carefully consider the choice of premises.
For them, it is necessary to build a room where the temperature will be approximately 15-17 degrees of heat with a humidity of 60-70%.
Care should be taken to ensure that the composition of the air due to their droppings is not toxic to the hens. In addition, the illumination should not be high and not very low. The most optimal - 6 watts per sq.m.
It is best to take laying hens with older chicks, this is more expensive, but they will also bring profits much faster. Buying young animals aged 18–20 weeks will cost you 320–350 rubles per head.
They are fed with compound feed, and also corn, bran, oats, zhito, wheat, oilcake, barley, fish or meat and bone meal, greens, succulent feeds, grated fruits, root vegetables and vegetables, and winter mixes should be used in the diet. The cost of feed for layers is about 30 rubles per kg. 1 egg on the Russian market costs about 6 rubles, and per year 1 hen, depending on the breed, can produce from 130 to 330 eggs.
Of course, there is not much to do meat and eggs at home, but firstly, very many people are not limited to just one kind of bird. Secondly, the demand for organic matter, as mentioned above, is growing exponentially.
You can sell your products at farmers' fairs, as well as create your own small online store for sale to individuals. In this case, social networks can come to the rescue.
Poultry farming at home: preparing a business plan
Poultry farming as a successful business attracts many people - the simplicity of organizing business, the relatively low initial investment, the consistently high demand for products and the ability to make good profits. Poultry meat is considered to be dietary - even those who are contraindicated in beef and pork for health reasons or as prescribed by a nutritionist.
It’s quite possible to organize breeding and rearing of poultry at home, it is possible to independently regulate production volumes, flexibly respond to market demands, breeding several species at once or moving from one type of bird to another. For a successful start, it is enough to carefully think through everything, draw up a business plan and invest several thousand rubles.
Stages of organizing a small business in poultry farming:
1) Choosing the best direction - after studying the market, competitors' offers, demand, features of poultry farming and other nuances: determining profitability
2) Financial calculations - a detailed analysis of all expenses (registration, rental of premises, arrangement of a house, purchase of young animals, feed, etc.), potential profit
3) Determining the payback period and making a list of everything you need
4) Performance of work, project implementation
Choice of direction and preparation
When choosing a direction, it is necessary to take into account a lot of factors and features. The business idea of earning money from poultry farming is not new - almost all rural residents raise poultry for themselves and for sale, but not everyone knows how to create a large farm and efficiently raise, raise a bird on a scale of hundreds and thousands of carcasses.
Pre Desirable explore the market to analyze the supply level of different types of meat and eggs, to find what is in demand and is represented in insufficient volume.
So, if there is little chicken in the region and they bring it from far away, it makes sense to conclude agreements with local supermarkets in advance or open several outlets for the sale of chicken products - meat, eggs, offal, semi-finished products.
If there are enough birds in the city or region, but there are no relatively rare species and a niche for the sale of quail or turkey poultry is free, then it is better to develop this direction. It is also worth paying attention to the difficulties in breeding, cultivation. Almost all types of poultry are quite unpretentious, but they require proper arrangement of premises, proper preparation of the diet.
The most popular types:
- Geese and ducks
- Chicken (broilers, layers)
- Pheasants and quail
The simplest areas are chicken, duck.
It is more difficult to breed quails and pheasants, they require the creation of the right turkey conditions. You can earn on the sale of meat (carcasses, offal, individual parts), eggs, meat and eggs at the same time.
It is advisable to decide in advance, since the choice of bird species will depend on which option is preferred.
Realizing a poultry business business idea at home requires proper registration. Usually choose LLC or IP, indicating the code OKVED group 01.
47, which governs the breeding and rearing of chickens, turkeys, ducks, guinea fowl, geese. In this case, we are not talking about the production of fluff and feather, so you can additionally specify the code 10.12.
Growing to get eggs, for meat, raising young animals, breeding individuals - all this implies its own codes.
Permits from veterinarians and SES, quality certificates will be required. Given the many complexities and subtleties, it makes sense to hire an experienced lawyer or take the time to independently prepare a package of documents.
Selection of area and premises
An important aspect that will directly affect the profitability of poultry farming as a business is the choice of area and premises.
It is best to stay in rural areas, to select the area and premises you need in accordance with the type of bird and the estimated volumes. So, pheasants will need an aviary for flights, chickens can grow indoors.
But for normal growth and a quality product, it is desirable to create conditions that are as close as possible to natural conditions.
It is desirable to have your own large territory, which will significantly reduce the cost of feed in the spring-summer period. Own garden will save on feed and provide birds with the necessary additives to feed: grass, plants, etc.
Territory and premises can be rented or bought, but it is better to find idle own assets of real estate or conclude a lease on squares and buildings in distant villages, which will significantly reduce costs in the business plan. Before compiling and performing all the calculations, you must already have certain ideas and understandings, so that later, because of the high rent, expenses do not exceed profits.
House and necessary equipment
Poultry farming as a home-based business is quite real for rural residents. But for the breeding and rearing of birds in large quantities, there is little ordinary barn and yard, you will have to equip everything.
First of all, a house is needed - for the cold season and night, where the bird will be comfortable and calm. Construction and equipment of the house can be done independently or with the involvement of workers, plans. The sizes and expenses directly depend on expected volumes. In addition, equipment and equipment costs are included in the business plan.
For breeding birds you will need:
- Adult Cages
- Incubators for breeding young animals
- Drinking bowls and feeders
- Heaters for young animals
- Special equipment for cleaning the house and territory
- Devices for measuring the level of humidity in the room, thermometers
- The room will have to take care of thermal insulation, ventilation, good lighting
Specific species and breeds of birds may imply special requirements, which must be taken care of in advance. The purchase of an incubator will subsequently save on the purchase of poultry and breed it yourself. But for the first time, young animals will need to be purchased from farmers.
Purchase of young animals, staff recruitment, other expenses
Eggs and young animals for growing are bought on specialized farms, after consulting with specialists about specific breeds. When collaborating with a supplier for the first time, it is advisable to bring along a veterinarian who will check the chicks and help buy healthy and strong.
It is advisable to choose personnel from those who have the necessary knowledge, experience, and skills. To service the poultry farm, several people will be needed: several people for caring for birds and cleaning in the poultry house, a specialist for slaughtering and cutting, a driver for the delivery of the finished product, if it is planned to sell it independently, sellers. Accountants can be brought in as a freelancer.
Feed can assume a variety of costs, which depends on: the percentage of natural feed (grass from the territory in spring and summer), the type and breed of poultry, the growth rate and level of naturalness of products, wholesale prices of specific suppliers.
It is also worth thinking about transport for delivering meat and eggs to the point of sale, buying out places for sale (if you plan to sell it yourself), fuel costs, special containers for delivery, etc.
To understand whether it is profitable or not to organize a poultry business, you need to think through and calculate everything well. Before drawing up a business plan, you need to study the market, find out the prices for equipment and feed, ask about the level of wages for employees in the field and carry out serious preliminary work.
- Registration of business and registration of permits
- Rent / purchase of territory, premises
- Poultry building and land management
- Equipment purchase
- Purchase of young animals
- The acquisition of feed and bait
- Employee salaries
- Additional shipping costs, etc.
Profit is calculated in accordance with the type of products sold and its optimal price in the region. Usually this is the sale of meat and eggs (retail and wholesale price).