Title: comes from the Greek word 'syrinx' - a tube, which apparently indicates the structure of the flower. According to another version - on behalf of the nymph Searing, turned into a reed, from which the forest god Pan made the shepherd sirinks flute.
Photo by Irina Mersiyanova
Description: the genus has about 30 species, some of which widespread in culture. There is no consensus on the classification of the genus Lilac. The main differences lie in the field of giving the status of a species to one or another species and establishing the degree of kinship between them. The fact is that there are not only natural species of lilac, but also species of hybrid origin, formed as a result of interspecific hybridization both in culture and in natural conditions. The number of such species is growing, they are combined into hybrid races. it hyacinth lilac(S. x hyacinthiflora),persian(S. x persica),Chinese(S. x chinensis),Henry(S. x henryi),josiflex(S. x josiflexa),zygifleksa(S. x swegiflexa),NanseyanaS. x nanceiana),Preston(S. x prestoniae),variegated(S. x diversifolia) and others. The origin of some of them is reliably known, while others only make assumptions. Most hybrid species have varieties.
In nature, lilac is found only in the mountainous regions of Eurasia. In Europe, namely in the Balkans and Carpathians, common lilac and Hungarian are found. In Asia, the birthplace of the Himalayan, Afghan and Persian lilacs is the Western Himalayas, and the vast majority of lilac species grows and is cultivated in the so-called East Asian mountain region, a vast region that includes Japan, Korea, Primorye, Amur and China. Especially China.
Fortunately, in the main, all classifications of lilacs converge. Regardless of how taxa are ranked, similar lilacs are combined into groups that in almost all cases have the same name and composition. And if you do not go into the intricacies of the concepts of subspecies, subsection, subgenus, species, and all kinds of series there, you can speculate on a variety of lilacs, which really exist from the roots to the ends of inflorescences.
To begin with, perhaps, it should be noted that, in fact, it unites all the lilacs. The main property, thanks to which they have earned popular love, is a beautiful flowering. Relatively small, usually fragrant funnel-shaped flowers with a four-lobed limb are collected in more or less large paniculate inflorescences. Fruits - dry, hard elongated oval capsules squeezed on the sides. Each bivalve box has two nests containing 1-2 winged seeds. All lilacs are multi-stemmed deciduous shrubs or, less commonly, trees. The arrangement of the leaves is opposite. Leaves, as a rule, are simple, integral, ovate, oval or lanceolate, with pointed ends. However, you can find lilacs with dissected and even cirrus leaves.
Cirrus lilacs (Pinnatifoliae) presented lilac cirrus(S. pinnatifolia) with dark green pinnate leaves and small pinkish-white flowers. This cute lilac grows in the mountains of Western China and is almost never found in the gardens of the world. Cirrus leaves also has lilac- S. x diversifolia (S. oblata x S. pinnatifolia). At lilac persian(S. x persica) among ovate-lanceolate leaves, peristratus dissected, lilac pinnatis(S. x laciniata), on the contrary, whole leaves appear only at the ends of the shoots. Each of the listed lilacs is good in its own way, but only lilac and Persian lilacs can grow in central Russia without problems. Variety lilac variety 'William H. Judd' with white flowers feels quite tolerable in our conditions. Persian is undemanding to soil, frost and drought resistant and highly decorative. It’s only a pity that in Moscow it does not seed, and the cuttings practically do not take root. I emphasize that we are talking about the Persian lilac as a concrete form, which has very definite distinctive features. There is a tendency to call the Persian lilac anything horrible - from Chinese lilac to Hungarian, or even a variety of ordinary lilacs. By the way, Persian and peristarennaya lilacs belong to the Common Lilacs (Syringae vulgares), and not to the Cirrus.
Photo by Olga Blohman
At Common lilacs flowers with a diameter of more than one centimeter, that is, large in comparison with other species. Inflorescences develop from the upper axillary buds of the shoots of the previous year, and the apical buds are usually absent. The most famous, popular and beloved by all common lilac(S. vulgaris) practically needs no introduction. It has been cultivated since the middle of the XVI century, has a lot of varieties. Of the noteworthy, but not yet mentioned lilacs belonging to the Ordinary, it is worth mentioning broadleaf lilac(S. oblata),hyacinth(S. x hyacinthiflora) and Chinese(S. x chinensis). Lilac broadleaf inferior to ordinary in decorative flowering, although it blooms a few days earlier. But she has larger leaves, which, in contrast to the leaves of common lilac, acquire a beautiful purple color in the fall. Hybrid view hyacinth lilac(S. oblata x S. vulgaris) takes an intermediate position between parents. As the lilac itself is hyacinthiferous, which is not common, so its varieties are characterized by early flowering. Let's call one of the most popular varieties of hyacinth lilac - 'Buffon '('Buffon'). Chinese lilac(S. protolaciniata x S. vulgaris), according to other information (S. x persica x S. vulgaris), exists only in culture, and was discovered not at all in China, but in France. This natural hybrid of lilac is perhaps the most decorative after the common lilac. Inflorescences in it are formed from several pairs of lateral buds (up to 10!), As a result of which they reach very impressive sizes, despite the fact that the bush itself is smaller and more elegant than ordinary lilacs. There are forms and varieties of Chinese lilacs, including those with double flowers. In the Moscow region it partially freezes, but in the absence of extreme frost it feels satisfactory.
Fluffy lilacs (Pubescentes) - velvety(S. velutina),small-leaved(S. microphylla),fluffy(S. pubescens),Meyer(S. meyeri),Julia(S.julianae) and others - have a slight pubescence on the leaves and inflorescences. Their flowers are small, but very fragrant. As in ordinary fluffy lilacs, inflorescences are formed from the lateral buds of last year's shoots, but there are no final buds or they are underdeveloped. All fluffy lilacs are very cute and original. When you first meet, a lasting impression is made by the velvet lilac. She is loved for her unusual appearance and strong, perhaps even a sharp, unique aroma. Julia's lilac touches: tiny flowers in delicate delicate open-air inflorescences with which the whole bush is strewn. The flowers are fragrant, the plant is compact - 2x2 m - it is as if created to decorate the garden. And these lilacs winter well. In recent years, small-leaved lilac, as well as its varieties, have been brought from Europe and put into wide sale. Their indisputable advantage is their small size. The bush reaches a height of one and a half meters, if it does not freeze. This lilac is convenient to use in miniature kindergartens and rockeries. But do not be surprised when, after one of the harsh winters, she orders a long life.
Syringa microphylla superba
Photo by Kravchenko Kirill
In Russia, a special place after the common lilac hungarian lilac(S. josikaea). He doesn’t have to be loved very much by the people, but it is simply grown everywhere, especially in cities. Hungarian blossoms almost a month later than usual. She is quite beautiful and, most importantly, stable in culture. The unpretentiousness of the Hungarian lilac is admirable. She is ready to put up with both drought and soaking, suffers shading and gas contamination of air, endures forty-degree frosts. Easily propagated by seeds and vegetatively.
Lilac Zvegintsova(S. sweginzowii),hairyshe furry(S. villosa),Komarova(S. komarowii),drooping(S. reflexa),Wolf(S. wolfii) and some other species are similar to Hungarian so that the difference is obvious only to specialists. Well, perhaps the drooping has characteristic hanging inflorescences. These lilacs are combined under the name Hairy (Villosae). They have rather large oval leaves with pointed tips, which usually have hairs or cilia located along the veins and along the edges. The foliage shoots of the current growth, developing from the terminal buds, end with inflorescences. The flowers are small, fragrant. The bushes are wide, up to five meters high, the trunks are thicker than ordinary lilacs. Almost all hairy lilacs are winter hardy enough, except perhaps lilac hairy(S. tomentella). Among hairy hybrid species are noteworthy lilac preston(S. reflexa x S. villosa) and josiflex(S. josikaea x S. reflexa) and especially varieties obtained from them, which introduce at least some variety into the group of late-flowering lilacs.
And a very special place is held by tree-shaped lilacs Amur(S. amurensis),netted(S. reticulata) and others related to Ligustrins, or Crackers(Ligustrina). Some researchers distinguish them in a separate genus. Crackers have fruits characteristic of the genus Lilac, but their flowers are more like flowers from plants of the genus Privet(Ligustrum) - the corolla tube is short, and the anthers on long stamen filaments significantly rise above the corolla. Large fluffy inflorescences of small creamy white flowers with protruding yellow stamens develop from lateral buds at the ends of last year's shoots and stand out against the background of dark green foliage. They bloom in the summer, about two weeks later than the Hungarian lilacs.
These are shrubs or trees with smooth spiky leaves with a rounded base, reaching a height of 10 m in the culture. The shiny brown bark resembles a cherry bark. There is no fundamental difference in the appearance of ligustrin, as well as in hairy lilacs. Amur lilacs and the like are hardy, resistant to air pollution and are only afraid of severe drought.
Using: lilacs belong to the most popular, beautifully flowering shrubs, which have long been widely used in gardens and parks. They are highly appreciated for their beautiful appearance, plentiful and long flowering with a pleasant aroma. In landscape gardening, common lilac and its many varieties are most often used, but other wild types of lilacs, which also find their place in landscaping, are very effective. Flowering common lilac can be achieved at any time of the winter-spring period.
Biological features of lilac
Lilac is a shrub of the olive family. Forsythia, ash, privet are considered her close relatives. Heat-loving relatives are - jasmine, olive.
A perennial plant has several trunks growing straight or sprawling, their average height from 5 to 7 meters. The shrub is evenly covered with dark green foliage, which does not fall before the onset of frost. Leaf plates reach a length of 12 cm. Depending on the variety, they are of various shapes: oval, cirrus, ovoid, complex, with a smooth edge and pointed tip.
The flowers are like elongated funnels that end with four open petals. Inflorescences consist of many small flowers that form lush clusters.
When the lilac blooms, about 18,000 inflorescences can bloom on one shrub.
Their color palette is diverse: flowers come in pink, purple, blue, purple, white and other shades. Delicate refined aroma during flowering plants spreads far in the surroundings. Winged seeds ripen in bivalve capsules.
Many signs are associated with this symbol of spring:
- if you find a flower with 5 petals on a blooming lilac and make a wish, then it will come true,
- if you plant a lilac near the house, it will protect the residents from negative energy,
- the white lilac growing near the house attracts love and prosperity to the family. If the plant is visible from the street, then it also protects from the evil eye and damage.
Believe signs or not - everyone decides for himself. But to plant a lilac near the house and admire its flowering and aroma is really worth it.
Brief Botanical Information
Genus Lilac (Syringa) of the Olive family has about 30 species growing in Northeast Asia, Iran. These are deciduous, rarely evergreen shrubs with simple leaves and numerous fragrant flowers of various colors (from white to purple), collected in large panicle inflorescences. Fruits - boxes, ripen in September-October. Currently, more than 2,000 varieties have been created that differ in color, degree of terry, and the size of flowers and inflorescences.
First, get acquainted with the most popular types of lilacs.
Amur Lilac (Syringa amurensis) - shrub or tree 4-5 (10) m high. The leaves are broad-ovate, slightly wrinkled, 5-12 cm long, greenish-purple when blooming, dark green in summer, orange-yellow color in autumn. The flowers are fragrant, white, with a cream or greenish tinge, in dense panicle inflorescences, 10 to 30 cm long, bloom in May-June, after many other types of lilacs, for 2-3 weeks. Growing fast. Honey plant. Homeland: Far East, Northeast China, Korea.
Hungarian Lilac (Syringa josikaea) - densely branched shrub up to 3-4 (7) m high. The leaves are large, up to 12 cm long, shiny, oblong-elliptical, dark green. The flowers are very fragrant, lilac-pink in loose panicles, bloom in May-June, later some types of lilacs. It grows quickly, does not give root offspring. Homeland: Carpathians, Transylvania. Decorative shapes are available.
Chinese Lilac (Syringa x chinensis) - a hybrid of common and Persian lilacs. Shrub up to 5-6 m tall with thin drooping shoots. The leaves are oblong-ovate, from 3 to 10 cm long. The flowers are very fragrant, lilac-purple, in loose panicles, up to 17 cm long, bloom in May-June.
Meyer Lilac (Syringa meyeri) - a compact shrub up to 1.5-1.8 m high. The leaves are widely oval, tapering at the apex, 2-4 cm long, dark green. The flowers are fragrant, light lilac-pink, in upright inflorescences 3-10 cm long, bloom in May-June. The advantage of this species is the early entry into the flowering season. Known only in culture, found in China. In central Russia, during severe winters, it can be damaged by frost.
Lilac shaggy, or hairy
Lilac shaggy, or hairy (Syringa villosa) - dense compact shrub up to 4 m high. The leaves are widely elliptic, 5-18 cm long, shiny, glabrous on top, sparse hairs below. Fragrant flowers, with the smell of privet, pink, collected in dense, pubescent panicles, up to 24 cm long, bloom in May-June, later on some types of lilacs. Growing fast. Homeland: China, North Korea. Decorative shapes are available.
Common Lilac (Syringa vulgaris) - a shrub up to 4 (7) m high. The leaves are ovoid, dark green, 5–13 cm long. The flowers are very fragrant, lilac, located in the upper part of the shoot in pyramidal panicles, 10-20 cm long, bloom in May-June. . Give copious growth.A large number of decorative varieties are bred. Homeland: Eastern Yugoslavia, Western and Southern Romania, Bulgaria, North-Western Turkey.
Persian Lilac (Syringa x persica) - a hybrid of Afghan and small-cut lilacs. Shrub up to 2.5-3 m tall with thin, arched branches. The leaves are lanceolate, 2-7.5 cm long. The flowers are fragrant (specific smell, not typical of lilacs), lilac-pink, in loose wide panicles up to 10 cm long, bloom in May-June. In central Russia, it can freeze during severe winters. There is a decorative form: ‘Alba’ (white flowers).
After the species, we will get acquainted with the best varieties of ordinary lilac.
Lilac is a deciduous multi-stemmed shrub, the height of which varies from 2 to 8 meters. The diameter of the trunks is about 0.2 meters. The color of the bark is brown-gray or gray. Young trunks are covered with smooth bark, and old ones are fissured.
Blossoming of leaves occurs relatively early, while it remains on the branches until the onset of frost. The length of the opposite leaf plates is about 12 centimeters, as a rule, they are solid, but there are also cirrus separated. In different species, the leaf shape may differ, so it is heart-shaped, oval, ovoid or elongated, sharpening in the upper part. The color of the foliage is dark or pale green. The length of the final drooping panicle inflorescences is about 0.2 m, they include flowers that can be painted in lilac, blue, pink, white, purple or purple. The flowers have a short four-toothed cup bell-shaped, 2 stamens and a corolla with a four-section flat limb and with a cylindrical long tube. Many are interested in when exactly the lilac flowers bloom. It depends on several factors, namely: on the species, weather and climatic conditions. Such a shrub can bloom from the last days of April to the first - June. During lilac flowering, the garden is filled with a unique, delicate and very pleasant aroma. The fruit is a bivalve box, inside it there are several winged seeds.
If the plant is provided with the most favorable conditions, then its life span can be about 100 years. It is very easy to care for lilacs, it is frost-resistant and is one of the most popular ornamental shrubs, along with hydrangea and chubushnik (garden jasmine).
What time to plant
The best time to plant lilacs in open soil is the period from mid-July to the first days of September. It is not recommended to plant such a shrub in spring or autumn, as it does not take root well and almost does not grow for 1 year. For planting, choose a sunny place with moderately moist soil saturated with humus, and its acidity should be 5.0–7.0.
When buying seedlings, be sure to carefully examine their root system. Stop your choice on a plant with a well-developed and branched root system. Before planting a seedling, all injured roots that started to dry out and are damaged by the disease should be cut out, the remaining roots should be shortened to 0.3 m. Injured stems should be removed, and excessively long should be shortened.
When planting several seedlings, do not forget to leave between them 2 to 3 meters (depending on type and variety) of an empty space. During the preparation of the pit for planting, it should be noted that it should have sheer walls. If the fertility of the soil is high or medium, then the size of the pit will be 0.5x0.5x0.5 meters. If the soil is poor or sandy, then the pit needs to be made 2 times larger, because during the planting of the seedling it will be necessary to fill in the nutrient soil mixture, which includes: humus or compost (from 15 to 20 kilograms), wood ash (from 200 up to 300 grams) and superphosphate (from 20 to 30 grams). Wood ash should be taken 2 times more if the soil on the site is acidic.
At the bottom of the pit, you need to make a good drainage layer, for this you can use crushed stone, expanded clay or broken brick. Then a nutrient mixture is poured into the pit in such a way as to make a mound. Further, the plant is set in the center of the pit directly on the mound. After its root system is straightened, the pit must be completely filled with soil mixture. In the planted lilac, the root neck should rise 30–40 mm above the surface of the site. Planted shrub should be watered well. When the liquid is completely absorbed into the soil, its surface will need to be covered with a layer of mulch (peat or humus), the thickness of which should be within 5-7 centimeters.
Lilac care in the garden
Growing lilacs in your garden is very simple, especially since caring for it does not take much time from the gardener. This shrub can grow without your participation, but it will be very good if from the beginning to the middle of the summer period you provide it with systematic watering as the soil dries up, and at the same time 2.5-3 buckets of water should be poured under 1 bush. During the season you will need 3 or 4 times to loosen the surface of the trunk circle to a depth of 4 to 7 centimeters. Also do not forget to remove weed in a timely manner. In August and September, you need to water such a plant only when there is a prolonged drought. After 5 or 6 years, the lilac will become a very spectacular dense bush.
The first 2 or 3 years, lilacs are fed only a small amount of nitrogen. Starting from the second year, ammonium nitrate in an amount of 65 to 80 grams or urea from 50 to 60 grams is added under each shrub. But experienced gardeners recommend feeding organic lilacs, for this, 10–30 liters of slurry should be poured under the bush (5: 1 cow manure should be dissolved in water). To begin with, make a not very deep groove around the shrub, stepping back from the trunks at least 50 cm. It is necessary to pour in the nutrient mixture into it.
Once every 2 or 3 years the plant is fed with phosphorus and potassium, for this, 1 adult bush should take from 35 to 40 grams of double superphosphate and from 30 to 35 grams of potassium nitrate. Granules should be buried in the trunk circle for 6-8 centimeters, then the plant must be watered without fail. However, lilac responds best to top dressing with a complex fertilizer consisting of 8 liters of water and 0.2 kilograms of wood ash.
Gardeners with considerable experience strongly recommend replanting it after 1 or 2 years from the date of planting the shrub. The fact is that such a plant very quickly consumes all the nutrients available in the soil, even despite systematic top dressing. In this regard, after 2 years, the soil will no longer be able to provide lilacs with the necessary energy for lush and incredible spectacular flowering, and rapid growth.
Three-year-old bushes are transplanted no earlier than August. It is necessary to transplant young plants immediately after flowering at the end of the spring period, otherwise they will not be able to take root properly until the first frost. A transplant pit needs to be done exactly the same as for a transplant. Then you should inspect the plant and cut out injured, dried or unnecessary stems and branches. The shrub is dug along the projection of the perimeter of the crown and pulled out of the ground along with a lump of earth. Then it is placed on a dense fabric or oilcloth and moved to a new landing site. The size of the new pit should be such that not only a bush with a lump of earth fits in it, but also a sufficiently large amount of fertile soil.
Before the bush turns 2 years old, it is not necessary to trim it, since the skeletal branches at this time are still in the formation stage. In the third year of life of a lilac, the formation of its crown should begin, this process will take from 2 to 3 years. Pruning is done in the spring, before sap flow begins and before the swelling of the kidneys. To do this, choose from 5 to 7 beautiful branches equally spaced from each other, and the remaining ones are deleted. Remember to cut out the entire root shoot. Next year, approximately ½ of the flowering stems will need to be removed. The main principle of pruning is that on one skeletal branch there should be no more than eight healthy buds, while the excess part of the branch must be removed to avoid overloading the bush during flowering. Simultaneously with the formation of the bush, sanitary pruning is also carried out. To do this, remove all injured, drying out, damaged by frost or disease branches and shoots, as well as those that grow incorrectly.
Lilacs, if desired, can be shaped into a tree. To do this, you need to choose a seedling that has a powerful straight, vertically located branch. It is necessary to shorten it to the height of the stem, and then from the shoots that will grow, it is necessary to form 5 or 6 skeletal branches, while do not forget to regularly release the trunk and trunk circle from the shoot. After you finish the formation of the standard lilac, it will only be necessary to thin out the crown every year.
Care for the lilac during flowering
When the weather is warm outside in spring, the lilac will begin to bloom, and its very delicate aroma will attract a huge amount of crunch. It is necessary to manually remove the May beetles from the bush. During active flowering, approximately 60 percent of all flowering stems will need to be removed. This procedure is called pruning "for a bouquet," it is necessary so that young stems are formed more intensively, as well as to increase the number of flower buds that are laid for next year. To extend the life of a bouquet of lilacs, you need to cut it early in the morning, while remember to split the lower part of the cut branch. At the end of flowering, cut off all inflorescences that have begun to fade from the bush.
Pests and diseases of lilac with photo examples
Lilac has a fairly high resistance to diseases and pests. But in some cases, it can get bacterial necrosis, bacterial rot, powdery mildew, or verticillosis. And on the shrub, moths, mining moths, buds or leaf mites and lilac moths can settle.
Bacterial, or Nectric, Necrosis
If in August the green foliage changed its color to gray-ash, and at the same time the young shoots became brown or brown, then this means that the bush is infected with bacterial (nectric) necrosis. In order to prevent, it is recommended to systematically thin out the crown of the plant to improve ventilation, cut off the areas affected by the disease and get rid of pests in a timely manner. If the damage to the bush is significant, then it will need to be dug up and destroyed.
Lilacs bloom better in open, sunny places, are quite unpretentious, tolerate a hot and dry climate, prefer fertile, slightly acidic and neutral, not too dry soils with low standing groundwater, and are stable in the city. To stimulate flowering, light pruning is used in early spring, to obtain a compact crown - pinching of the side shoots.
Lilacs can be damaged by lilac moth, lilac hawthorn, lilac moth - speckled and be affected by late blight of the kidneys, bacterial rot.
Lilacs are propagated with green cuttings (using root formation stimulants), layering, dividing shrubs, grafting and stratified seeds.
Good lilacs in single and group plantings. They are used to create freely growing or with controlled growth, flowering, tall hedges and walls using a cut for bouquets. The density of placement in the row is 70-80 cm. It is possible to expose the lower part of the bushes, which must be decorated by tamping with short bushes or grassy perennials. To prevent the development of stock rootstock, it is preferable to use root-planting material. Up to 2/3 of flowering shoots are cut into bouquets. In bouquets, it is better to cut in the early morning and split the ends of the shoots.
The author thanks V.K. Zykova - curator of the collection of lilacs in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden for the photos and material provided.
Bacterial rot damages foliage, flowers, stems and buds of a plant. In some cases, wet spots appear on the root surface, which grow very quickly. As the disease develops, the foliage loses turgor and dries, however, its subsidence does not occur immediately, and drying and bending of the stems are also observed. In order to cure lilacs, it is necessary to carry out 3 or 4 sprays of copper chloride, while the interval between procedures should be 1.5 weeks.
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that can harm both young and old shrubs. A loose whitish-gray coating appears on the surface of the foliage, with time it becomes denser and becomes brown. The progression of this disease is observed in a hot dry summer. It is necessary to begin treatment of the plant immediately, as the first signs of the disease were noticed. First of all, it is necessary to cut and destroy all areas affected by the disease, then spray the bush with a fungicide. At the very beginning of the spring period, you should dig the soil with bleach (per 1 square meter 100 grams), while trying not to injure the root system of the bush.
If you notice that the lilac foliage curls up, brown or rusty spots appear on its surface, and they gradually dry and die, then this is a sign of another fungal disease - verticillosis wilting. The bush begins to dry up from the top, while the disease spreads extremely quickly. The affected bush should be treated with a solution consisting of 1.5 buckets of water, 100 grams of soda ash and the same amount of laundry soap. Also, good results are shown by spraying the Abiga-Peak shrub. Cut out all infected areas and destroy them along with flying leaves.
Lilac hawthorn is a large butterfly, on the front wings of which there is a marble pattern, she prefers a nocturnal lifestyle. In the caterpillar stage, this pest reaches a length of 11 centimeters. It can be distinguished from other pests by a dense outgrowth similar to a horn located in the back of the body. The caterpillar of the hawthorn settles not only on the lilac, but also on the meadowsweet, currant, viburnum, ash and grapes. To get rid of such a pest, you will need to treat the shrub with a solution of Phthalophos (1%).
Lilac moth prefers to live on hedges and in light forests. In one season, such a pest is able to give 2 generations. Its small caterpillars eat flowers, buds and buds completely, and only veins rolled up into a tube remain from leaf plates. The affected bush should be sprayed with Fozalon or Karbofos.
Lilac leaf mite
Lilac leaf mite is a very small insect that feeds on lilac vegetable juice, while sucking it from the bottom of the foliage. The leaves gradually dry out and change their color to brown. For prophylaxis purposes, lilacs should be sprayed on foliage with a solution of iron or copper sulfate, and systematically thin out the crown and fertilize the plant with phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. Do not forget to collect and destroy fallen leaves in the autumn.
Lilac bud mite
The lilac bud mite spends all its life in the kidneys of the plant. He sucks out juice from them, and also experiences in the kidneys and winter.As a result, the deformation of the buds occurs, the stems and foliage growing out of them are underdeveloped and weak, flowering is absent and the plant may die over time. For prevention purposes, at the very beginning of the spring period (after the frosts are left behind), it is necessary to remove all fallen leaves and cut root shoots, then dig the soil in the trunk circle for a full bayonet with soil turning, and then the bush is treated with copper sulfate solution.
Mining moth can harm lilac foliage. First, a lot of brown dark spots (min) appear on its surface, and after some time the plates curl into a tube as if from a fire. Affected plants lack flowering, and after 1 or 2 years they die. To get rid of such a moth, it is necessary to carry out abundant spraying over the foliage with a solution of Bactofit or Fitosporin-M, or you can use Bordeaux liquid. As a preventive measure, in the autumn, compulsory collection and destruction of plant debris is carried out, while before freezing and at the very beginning of the spring period, deep digging of the soil in the near-stem circle is necessary.
Propagation of lilac
Seeds of such a plant are propagated only by specialists in nurseries. Gardeners, for propagation of varietal lilacs, use such vegetative methods as: layering, grafting and cuttings. If desired, you can purchase grafted seedlings or root crops that were obtained from cuttings or layering. The advantages of root-owning lilacs over vaccination are that it is less demanding, recovers relatively quickly after wintering, and can be easily propagated by vegetative methods. Own lilac has greater durability.
Lilac after flowering
Adult lilacs have high winter resistance and do not need shelter for the winter. However, the near-trunk circle in young plants must be insulated with fallen leaves and peat, while the layer thickness should be 10 centimeters. It happens that in winter, varietal lilacs are damaged by frost, in connection with this spring it will be necessary to prune the stems affected in winter.
Hyacinth Lilac (Syringa x hyacinthiflora)
This hybrid is the result of the work of V. Lemoine. It is created using common lilac and broadleaf lilac. Leaf plates have a sharp tip and a wide egg or heart shape. In autumn, their dark green color changes to purplish brown. The flowers are similar to the flowers of common lilac, but the inflorescences are less dense and smaller. It has been cultivated since 1899. The terry form has the greatest effect, there are several more popular forms:
- Esther Staley. The color of the buds is red-violet, and the fragrant flowers are saturated red-purple. The diameter of the flowers is about 20 mm, their petals bend back. The length of the inflorescences is about 16 centimeters.
- Churchill. The color of the buds is purple-red, and the blossoming fragrant flowers are lilac-silver with a pinkish tint.
- Puple glory. Dense inflorescences consist of large (diameter 35 mm) simple purple flowers.
Common lilac has been cultivated since 1583, it has a large number of varieties created by both domestic and foreign breeders. For instance:
- Red Moscow. The color of the buds is purple-violet, and the fragrant flowers are dark purple. In diameter, they reach 20 mm and have yellow stamens.
- Violetta. Cultivated since 1916. The buds are dark purple, and double and semi-double large (diameter about 30 mm) flowers are pale purple. They have a faint odor.
- Primrose. The buds are yellow-green and the flowers are pale yellow.
- Belicent. The bush is straight and tall. The length of fragrant openwork pink-coral inflorescences is about 0.3 m. The shape of large slightly corrugated leaf plates is oval.
In addition to these varieties, garden lilacs are popular such as: Belle Nancy, Monique Lemoine, Amethyst, Amy Schott, Vesuvius, Vestalka, Galina Ulanova, Jeanne d'Arc, Cavour, Soviet Arctic, Defenders of Brest, Captain Balta, Katerina Javemeyer, Congo, Leonid Leonov, Madame Charles Suchet, Madame Casimir Perrier, Dream, Miss Ellen Wilmott, Montaigne, Hope, Lights of Donbass, Memory of Kolesnikov, Sensation, Charles Joli, Celius, etc.
Gardeners also grow the following species: Peking lilac, drooping, Japanese, Preston, Juliana, Komarova, Yunnan, fine-haired, shaggy, Zvegintsev, Nansen, Henry, Wolf and velvety.
Varieties with photos
In nature, the genus of lilacs has 28 species growing throughout Europe - from south to north. Breeders bred a wide variety of cultivated hybrid varieties of fragrant shrubs (about 2300). They differ among themselves in the form of flowers - simple and double, in size - small, medium, large, color of flowers - from simple lilac to complex purple, as well as the flowering period, height and appearance of the shrub.
Common (Syrínga vulgáris)
Common (Syrínga vulgáris)
The most common type of lilac. In the wild, common lilac is found in the Carpathians. Cultivated varieties are grown in different regions. This multi-stemmed shrub grows in height from 2 to 8 meters. The bark of the trunk is gray-brown, in young shoots it is smooth, greenish. Each shoot ends with one or two large buds. The size of the lateral kidneys is smaller than the final ones.
Leaves, heart-shaped at the base, pointed to the apex, grow opposite. The length of the leaf plate is different: from 4 to 12 cm, width - from 3 to 8 cm. Dense bright green leaves remain green until winter, and so fall off.
Fragrant flowers have a different color palette: lilac, purple and even white (depending on the variety). They are collected in panicles whose length is 10 - 20 cm. Lilac blooms at the end of the last spring month, the first flowering can be observed in the fourth year after planting. The flowering period lasts 20 days. Several light brown winged seeds ripen in the box-fruits in the fall.
The plant is frost-resistant, drought-resistant. It is undemanding to the soil, it can grow even on loamy soil. The roots of an adult shrub grow strongly, which must be taken into account when planting, so as not to interfere with the growth of other plants.
Hungarian (Syringa josikaea)
Hungarian (Syringa josikaea)
The perennial got its name not by chance. Under natural conditions, it grows in Hungary, in the Carpathians, on the Balkan Peninsula, and belongs to relict and protected plants. Hungarian lilac was cultivated in 1830, one of the first among its relatives. Feels good in regions with a harsh climate.
The maximum size of the bush is 4 meters. The size of the ovoid crown is also about 4 meters. The plant grows rapidly, having reached its adult size does not change further. Upright shoots with a neat crown, without a haircut, give the shrub grace and harmony. The Hungarian lilac does not have root shoots, therefore, reproduction in this way is excluded.
Leaves from other types of lilacs are distinguished by pubescence on the underside. Adult leaflets with indented veins have a length of 12 cm. The dark green color changes to yellow by autumn.
Beautiful shrub during flowering. In the loose panicle inflorescences, many bright purple non-double flowers are collected. Long-tubular flowers have a delicate pleasant aroma. The single flower is small, its diameter is only 1 cm, but the length of the entire magnificent panicle reaches 30 cm. The fruit is a cylindrical box, ripens by mid-autumn, can last on the bush until spring.
The main flowering period falls on the first summer month and lasts approximately 25 days.
This plant is considered a long-liver. Under favorable conditions and a little care, Hungarian lilacs can live 100 years or longer, and bloom annually.
The ideal place for planting is a bright area in the garden, protected from the wind. Perennial is not exacting to the soil, it is necessary to avoid only the wetland. It is good if the soil is fertile, with a drainage layer, moderately moist. The plant tolerates drought and frost well.
Hungarian lilac, unlike ordinary, has an enviable variety variety. Popular varieties in regions with harsh winters are considered to be such forms of lilac - white-flowered and pink-flowered, pale and red-flowered with a different tint: purple, reddish.
Sensation (Syringa vulgaris Sensation)
Sensation (Syringa vulgaris Sensation)
The new variety was bred in France, quickly spread to the Russian expanses, becoming one of the favorite among gardeners. Its main feature is an unusual two-tone color of flowers, and an unsurpassed aroma will not leave anyone indifferent.
Lilac "Sensation" - a tall shrub that reaches three meters in height and width. Annual growth is approximately 20-30 cm. Direct shoots are covered with large dark green leaves (length 12 cm), which grow opposite. Shoots and leaves form a dense green crown.
Purple flowers decorated with a white border give a special charm to the plant.
Tubular flowers ending in four open petals are large: their diameter is 2.2 cm. They are collected in panicle inflorescences about 20 cm long.
Lilac blooms in late May, the duration of flowering is 3 weeks. In a bivalve box 2 winged seeds ripen.
Perennial loves sunny areas, can grow and bloom in small shade, if the soil is sufficiently nutritious. This grade is frost-resistant. Young bushes easily tolerate low temperatures. It is not recommended to plant lilac near groundwater.
Meyer (Syrínga meyeri)
Meyer (Syrínga meyeri)
Dwarf slow-growing species of lilacs with a height and diameter of not more than 1.5 meters. Over a year, the plant grows by 10 cm. On the gray-brown shoots there are wide dark green leaves of an elliptical shape, the length of which is 4 cm. The upright inflorescences reach 10 cm. Flowers, depending on the variety, are lilac, white, lavender and even red in color . The flowering period falls on the end of May - the beginning of June. May bloom again in late summer.
One of the most popular varieties of lilac Meyer is considered the variety "Red Pixie" (Syrínga Red Pixie)
Meyer Lilac (Syrínga meyeri) Red Pixie
Repairing hardy shrub blooms twice a year - in May and August. A short perennial reaches a height of 100 - 170 cm, grows in width by 120 cm. The purple-red buds turn into saturated pink flowers, which in the sun become a light pink shade over time. Gardeners also call such a lilac "Red Fairy". The plant blooms quickly after planting: bushes 25 cm high are covered with many flowers collected in inflorescences.
Persian (Syrínga persica)
Persian (Syrínga persica)
In nature, this type of lilac grows in Japan, Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan. Culture can be found in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Crimea. In Russia, the overseas “Persian” does not grow in the natural environment. It is grown in botanical nurseries, breeding institutes. It is expensive, requires special attention, not everyone can afford such a plant.
It is impossible to propagate perennial seeds: after flowering, the seeds are not tied in boxed fruits. Cuttings root difficult. The grafted seedling is better taken root.
A shrub of small height (from 1 to 2 meters) grows rapidly, the growth per year is thirty centimeters. On brownish-gray branches, smooth leaves are arranged in pairs, the length of which is 2-4 cm. They are oval in shape, wide at the base, pointed to the apex.
In inflorescences collected many medium-sized pink-purple fragrant flowers. Persian lilac begins to bloom in May. Lush panicles of inflorescences have an average size of 10 cm. During abundant flowering, they merge, forming large flower clusters.
The shrub does not need decorative pruning; the plant has a round crown. A haircut is necessary if the perennial wants to give some other shape.
To plant the “Persian” in the garden, you need a cozy corner - light, dry, without drafts and winds. In a damp and shady place, the bush will not bloom. Land for plant growth requires fertile, light, clay, sandy soil with high acidity is not suitable.
Primrose (Syrínga Primrose)
Primrose (Syrínga Primrose)
In 1949, breeders from Holland developed the yellow Primrose lilac variety. Shrub grows fast: 30 cm per year. The adult representative of the flora can reach a height of 3.5 meters. Tree shoots are densely covered with dark green leaves. The heart-shaped sheet has a diameter of 2.5 cm, a length of 5 to 12 cm.
In early May, lilac-green buds appear on lilacs, which are collected in twenty-centimeter panicles. A blossoming flower (its diameter is about 1.5 cm) of a pale yellow color, fading in the sun, becomes almost snow-white. Amazing aroma spreads around during the flowering of perennials. Yellow lilac looks very impressive against the background of other ornamental shrubs. Toward the end of summer, elongated fruits in the form of small boxes with seeds appear on the site of inflorescences.
Planting Primrose lilacs is recommended in the summer, in early August, in well-lit areas protected from the wind. The soil should be light and fertile.
Amur (Syrínga amurénsis)
Amur (Syrínga amurénsis)
In nature, Amur lilac is found in the Primorsky Territory and the Amur Region, in the Far East, as well as in the eastern part of Korea and China. A shrub tree reaches a height of 20 m, cultivated - 10 m. The plant can be called a long-liver, since in one place it can grow for 100 years. After planting, lilacs are in no hurry to grow; in 10 years of life they only reach their luxurious appearance.
This deciduous shrub with the advent of autumn changes the dark green color of the foliage to golden and purple. Large-sized leaves (12 cm) cover branches abundantly.
Many inflorescences are formed on young shoots. Small white flowers bloom in June, and sometimes in July (depending on weather conditions), the flowering of the plant lasts a little more than two weeks. The pleasant aroma of flowers attracts many bees.
Amur lilacs do not produce fruits. However, in buds that have bloomed, seeds ripen that can be harvested to grow a new plant.
This type of lilac is the most frost-resistant and drought-resistant. It tolerates the gas contamination of city streets.
Indian or Lagerstroemia (Lagerstroemia indica)
Indian or Lagerstroemia (Lagerstroemia indica)
Deciduous plant of this species has 25 varietal varieties. Perennial is formed either as a tree, or as a multi-stemmed shrub. Trees have one thin strong trunk, at the bush there are many light brown shoots.
At the end of the 18th century, lilac seedlings from Asia were brought to Europe. The popularity of the plant grew every year, at the beginning of the twentieth century, Indian lilacs became the first guest at garden exhibitions, as well as the winner.
The plant in the natural environment reaches a height of 9 meters, a wide crown grows in diameter of 8 meters.
The leaves of the lilac are elliptical, pointed to the top, their length varies from 2 to 7 cm. Dark green in spring and summer, by autumn they acquire a red or yellowish hue.
The peculiarity of the camp is a long flowering period - from June to October. During flowering, the bush is buried in flowers of various shades: from white to red (depending on variety). Flowers emerge from buds that look like dense balls.A blossoming flower consists of petals having a wavy edge, it resembles a miniature terry rose, in the center of which is a bright yellow stamen. Flowers form panicle inflorescences 20 cm long.
The blooming lilac is magnificent, it is impossible to look away from it. A riot of colors and aroma attract insects that pollinate the plant. Mature seeds can be used for reproduction.
A feature of Indian lilacs is a change in the color of flowers during growth and during the day. Lighting also plays an important role in the color palette. Therefore, it is often possible to notice flowers of different shades on one perennial.
The thermophilic plant easily adapts to winter temperatures. Cooling to -15 degrees, the plant can easily withstand. More often in Russia it is grown in the southern regions, and in those areas where the climate is harsh, it is grown in greenhouses. Indoor bush grows about a meter. It is important to properly care for your pet: observe the regime of active development and rest.
Sending lilacs for the winter, you need to cut off all the leaves, otherwise she will not have enough strength to grow in the spring. Do not neglect preventive measures in the fight against diseases and pests.
Can you imagine a lilac bush on which flowers of different colors - white, pink, purple bloom at the same time? It's about the standard lilac. This spectacular tree can be grown independently in your personal garden.
Lilac on a stem is a compact ornamental plant up to 2.5 meters high. The trunk looks like a cane, which is exactly stuck in the ground. Thick leafy crown forms the shape of a green ball. Terry or simple inflorescences can be burgundy, scarlet, pale blue, depending on the variety.
The plant is hardy, prefers to grow on loamy soils, does not like sour soil and excess moisture. Near groundwater it is not recommended to plant it.
It is easier to care for a decorative tree than for a shrub: the standard form does not give unnecessary shoots that need to be cut. Lilacs of other varieties can be planted on it, perennial will delight you with different colors for many years.
Stack lilacs are planted both singly and all kinds of compositions are made with it. At reservoirs weeping forms usually land. Originally look standard plants in flower beds, alleys, on personal plots in combination with other shrubs.
You can buy a standard decorative tree in specialized stores.
Palibin (Syringa Palibin)
Repairing grade of lilac. Blooms twice in the warm period: in late May and in the last month of summer.
Lilac Meyer Palibin (Syringa Palibin)
A compact crown is formed by four-centimeter leaves growing opposite. Flowers of a pale lilac hue have a strong aroma. A low deciduous shrub (height 60 cm) can be grown in flowerpots. The variety is frost-resistant, easily tolerates drought. An important requirement for care - trimming brushes after flowering. This procedure is necessary for abundant flowering next year, so that the plant does not waste energy on the formation of seeds.
Experts studying the composition of the plant in laboratories came to the conclusion that in the lilac petals there are essential oils, ascorbic acid, volatile and resins. Due to this composition, the plant has found wide application in the treatment of a wide variety of diseases.
Application in traditional medicine (infusions, tinctures)
Lilacs are widely used in informal medicine. All parts of the plant - bark, leaves, buds, flowers and seeds, are considered medicinal, from which they prepare medicinal remedies for various diseases. For these purposes, both fresh raw materials and dried ones are suitable. Preparations made from lilacs are used as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic. They also treat external diseases such as dermatitis, skin rashes, and long non-healing wounds.
Tea made from lilac flowers helps with colds, flu, a strong cough, tuberculosis, and relieves the inflammatory process in the kidneys.
Alcohol tincture is used in the treatment of joints, skin diseases, inflammation in the muscles.
Compresses help with varicose veins, relieve inflammation in the muscles and joints.
Water infusion of flowers of lilac and linden helps in the treatment of colds and malaria.
The ointment, which contains the flowers of the plant, is used for rheumatism, it heals spurs on the heels, a fungus on the legs.
Choosing a place to land
Good conditions for the growth and flowering of lilacs are the following:
- A flat area protected from strong drafts and gusts of wind, otherwise a young immature seedling may break. In winter, buds may freeze in open windy areas, which will affect flowering. Protection from the wind can be a fence, a country house or other low buildings.
- Light neutral soil, moderately moist, use drainage when planting. Perennials will not grow on wetlands and flooded areas. If there is no way to avoid such a planting, then you can plant a plant on a mound, an alpine hill is an example of this.
- Avoid places for growing lilacs with surface groundwater (at least 1.5 meters from the root system).
- A sunlit plot for at least half a day.
For full growth and flowering, lilac needs slightly alkaline soil. If it is acidic, then before planting, it is necessary to produce or add dolomite flour.
A nutritious soil mixture is prepared before planting: 2 buckets of humus, 300 grams of wood ash, 1 or 2 tablespoons of superphosphate. To mix everything.
It is advisable to plant and transplant lilacs on a cloudy day or in the evening.
Stages to be observed when planting a plant:
- Choose the most convenient site for landing.
- Dig a landing pit corresponding to soil fertility. For example, with light fertile soil, the size of the hole should be as follows: diameter - 50 cm, depth - 50 cm. With sandy soil, the size and diameter of the pit should be 1.5 times larger. If the earth is clayey, heavy, the diameter of the pit is 50 cm, the depth is more than 50 cm, taking into account the thickness of the drainage layer.
- At the bottom of the pit, fill the prepared fertile mixture with fertilizer.
- Place a sapling in the center of the hole, carefully straighten the roots along the soil mixture, which was previously filled to the bottom of the pit. Sprinkle the remaining space with prepared soil.
- Compact the earth.
- To water. During irrigation, the earth will settle, its contact with the roots will be dense, which is favorable for the rooting of lilacs.
- Once the water has settled after irrigation, re-compact and pour again the soil mixture.
- Mulch the ground around the lilac with peat, humus or grass - a layer thickness of 5 cm.
Lilacs need sunlight. She feels comfortable and in a small partial shade. On the site, which is constantly in the shade, the shrub is slowly growing, its branches are stretching, flowering slows down, and sometimes completely stops. With sufficient lighting, perennial will delight with bright juicy greens, strong shoots and lush flowering.
Sunshine throughout the daylight hours is best avoided. Flowers of some varieties can fade in direct sunlight, they bloom quickly and bloom briefly. The best place for culture will be a sunny area before lunch and a slight partial shade in the afternoon.
When planting a young shrub in the spring, it is necessary to ensure that the soil remains moist. Therefore, the plant needs frequent and plentiful watering, especially in the dry summer. It must be remembered that the lilac also does not like excessive waterlogging, everything should be in moderation.
An adult culture does not need watering, usually it has enough natural rainfall. The exception is arid weather. If the lilac leaves are covered with dust, you can perform the rain procedure. The plant will like it. You can not arrange such a shower only during flowering.
Moisture is required for perennials in the fall, as the root system continues to grow. Before frost, in October, saturate the plant roots with moisture: pour three buckets of water under each bush.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
Due to the unpretentiousness of lilacs, many gardeners forget about its top dressing. However, this procedure plays a large role in the flowering of the plant. The first three years after planting, if fertilizers were added to the planting hole, additional feeding of lilacs is not required. You can make nitrogen early in the spring for foliage growth. For such purposes, urea and ammonium nitrate are suitable.
An adult shrub is recommended to be fed organic every spring.
For example, infusion of mullein in proportions: 10 liters of water - 1 liter of remedy. In the autumn, lilacs need phosphorus and potassium. These fertilizers can be applied dry while digging near-trunk soil. For one bush, 2 tablespoons of potassium nitrate and superphosphate are required. You can use liquid top dressing - dilute 250 grams of ash in 10 liters of water.
There may be several reasons for transplanting an adult lilac:
- a fast-growing perennial tree takes all useful substances from the soil, which affects the flowering of the plant,
- the place of initial landing was chosen poorly: swampy, shaded, etc.,
- crops growing next to lilacs began to oppress the shrub and vice versa,
- redevelopment of the site.
How to transplant a lilac bush to a new site so that it does not suffer? The transplant technology is as follows:
- Choose a suitable place, determine the interval between shrubs: if not as a hedge, then the distance should be observed at least two meters.
- Prepare fertile soil and drainage.
- Dig a trench: on fertile soil, its diameter is 50 cm, the depth is also 50 cm. If the soil is loamy, then the size of the pit should be two times larger so that the plant can take enough nutrition from the substrate. Put drainage at the bottom, fill in ash or bone meal.
- Dig carefully an adult bush with a lump of earth, so that the lilacs more quickly take root in a new area. Remove old and damaged branches.
- Place in a landing pit, sprinkle with prepared soil.
- Water abundantly.
- Mulch the soil around the perennial.
For transplanting, the best time is considered to be early spring and autumn. In spring, this procedure is performed until the kidneys are awake. It is better to deal with transplants in the evening or early in the morning in cloudy weather.
Pruning after flowering
In order for lilac bushes to remain always elegant, they need pruning. If this procedure is ignored, the perennial runs wild, grows overgrowth, flowers will bloom only at the top.
There is an opinion that the more often a lilac is broken or cut, the more flowering it will be. This is far from the case, since a number of rules must be observed when cropping.
The first 2-3 years after planting, pruning is not necessary, since the young bush is still growing slowly, it needs time to get stronger.
Cutting time of an adult plant depends on the goal: to rejuvenate the lilac or form its crown. In the spring, a perennial needs a sanitary haircut. Until the buds open, remove the dry, damaged and frozen branches. If there are signs of disease on the shoots, they should also be cut.
In the spring, it is better not to engage in crown formation, since the plant experiences stress, which can adversely affect flowering. It is necessary to form a crown after the perennial has flowered.
Cut off faded panicles. Lilacs will not waste energy on their nutrition and seed formation, thereby the growth of young shoots is activated, which will favorably affect the formation of new flower buds for the next season.
Shorten the long branches by a third. It is necessary to cut excess shoots and shoots that grow close to the soil. If the bush has become wide and too thick, you need to remove the thin side branches sticking out to the side. The result should be a neat plant with a round crown.
The old shrub can be rejuvenated. In this case, shorten all branches, their length from the ground should not exceed 40 cm. Thin the shoots above the ground surface, completely remove the old ones. The rejuvenating procedure can be carried out in the spring, if you will not be bothered by the lack of flowering this season, or even after flowering. Of course, the appearance of such a bush will not be entirely attractive due to sticking out stumps (they are processed after pruning with garden varieties). But after three years, he will turn back into a lush shrub with young shoots and beautiful flowers.
There are several ways to propagate lilacs.
Propagate the culture in this way is easy. You need to take a stalk - young or numb. Cutting can be done in spring, in summer - after flowering, in autumn, when the leaves have fallen.
Stages of cuttings in the spring:
- cut a branch from 10 to 15 cm long, on which there are 3-4 pairs of buds, cut the top of the shoot,
- remove the bottom pair of leaves,
- place the stalk in a solution that stimulates growth (Kornevin) for several hours,
- to prepare the soil - a mixture of peat, sand and perlite, to fill in a landing tank (you can plant in a greenhouse),
- plant cuttings, the distance between them should be at least 5 cm,
- watering once a week is enough
It takes a long time to root the lilacs, about 8 weeks. Cuttings in this period need spraying and shading. Remove fallen leaves immediately. If the lilac has taken root by autumn, it is possible to plant mature seedlings in the open ground, weak ones - leave in the same place until spring.
This method of reproduction is quite popular among gardeners. In the spring, prepare a horizontal groove in the soil 2 cm wide in the soil. Bend the young strong shoot to the soil by placing it in a trench. Fasten the branch in several places with metal brackets. Sprinkle with fertile soil. All season water the escape. In the place of nailing, add soil. Young shoots should appear from the nodes. A young bush can be separated from the mother plant only after 4 years, when the root system is well developed.
There may be several reasons for the lilac to stop blooming:
- Lack of sunlight or scorching sun all day. Abundant shrubs will bloom in the western and eastern part of the site. Avoid close landing with tall buildings and trees, especially with conifers, as they give a shadow.
- Unsuitable soil. Lilac does not like wetlands and dense clay soil, the close location of groundwater is also detrimental to the plant. Excessive watering leads to waterlogging of the soil, which will also affect flowering.
- Errors during planting and transplanting perennials. It is necessary to lay a drainage on the bottom of the planting hole to avoid root decay. When planting, the root neck should be above the surface of the earth, it can not be filled up.
- Excess fertilizer. Fertilize the bush once every two years. An excess of nitrogen will adversely affect lilacs: perennials will quickly grow green mass and may not bloom at all this year.
- Crop errors. This procedure should be carried out annually in order to stimulate the formation of new shoots and high-quality flowering of perennials. It is imperative that the brushes be trimmed after flowering so that the plant does not waste energy on seed formation. Young shoots at the roots must be removed with a sharp secateurs.
Subject to these simple rules, the lilac will annually delight with its bewitching flowering.
The source of infection can be pollen, soil, planting material.Varieties of viral ailments:
- ring spotting
- chlorotic leaf spot,
- ring mottling.
Signs of the disease can be seen in the spring. First, they appear on the leaves, and then climb into the flowers. Yellow, brown, white spots appear on the leaves (depending on the type of virus), which affect the entire sheet or part of it. Their shape is different - half rings, rings, spots. The neglected stage of the disease leads to the twisting and death of foliage and flowers.
Viral diseases are not treatable. If the virus is found on lilacs, the bush must be removed so that the infection does not pass to other plants.
The implementation of preventive measures will help to avoid the appearance of viruses, namely:
- planting quality healthy seedlings,
- regular removal of weeds and overgrowths around the tree trunks,
- proper top dressing
- treatment for prophylaxis, before flowering, with “Athlete” or “Agate” preparations.
Mushrooms are in the ground, sometimes for a long time without manifesting themselves. But as soon as good conditions are created for them, they multiply rapidly, affecting the plant. These include - holey and brown spotting, powdery mildew, rust, wilting, septoria, anthracosis, tserkosporiz. They appear in the form of spots, the shape, color and size of which are different.
- Brown spotting. The tips of the leaves become gray-brown, spots gradually spread throughout the leaf plate. Then holes form on it, the sheet curls and dies. Fungal disease starts with excessive humidity and high temperature (+25 degrees).
- Hole spotting. First, spots appear on the leaves of brown-yellow color, then the inflorescences rot. When the disease is started, an olive-black coating forms on these parts of the plant.
- Powdery mildew is the most common fungal disease. The affected areas of lilac are covered with powdery gray coating. Most often, the fungus appears in the heat with dry air.
- Withering. With this ailment, the leaves become brown, curl and fall off.
To prevent the development of fungal diseases, it is necessary to exclude sources of infection:
- raking the fallen leaves from under the bush in the fall,
- timely cut the shoots on which the disease appeared,
- digging the ground around the lilac
- spray the bush in the spring and autumn with vitriol: copper or iron, treated with Bordeaux liquid.
If the lilac is infected with a fungus severely, then it must be dug up and burned, the soil treated with bleach.
Bacteria Pseudomonas syringae affect not only leaves and flowers, but also shoots with buds. Small watery and oily spots appear on parts of the plant, gradually growing, they turn black. The disease leads to the wilting of lilacs, and subsequently to drying out.
Bacteria multiply with high soil moisture and a high nitrogen content in it.
The methods of control are the same as in the treatment of fungal diseases.
The most common disease from this group is panicle. With the growth of lateral shoots, internodes cease to grow, and the leaves become smaller. The shrub takes on a dwarf appearance, which leads to its death.
When exposed to mycoplasma, chlorosis, rosette, jaundice can develop, which is also detrimental to lilacs.
Sometimes pests and insects can be found on lilacs. If you do not start a timely struggle with them, they will significantly spoil the appearance of the bush. Uninvited guests include caterpillars, leaf weevils, ticks, spotted moths, various beetles and scale insects. All of them lay larvae in foliage. Therefore, in autumn, it is necessary to rake out the fallen leaves from under the perennial and dig up the trunk circles.
In addition to sanitary cleaning and trimming of infected shoots, lilac prophylactic treatment with insecticides is necessary.
Scale guards, ticks and cicadas do not tolerate Iskra, Kemifos, and Fufafon preparations. Caterpillars and speckled moths die from Kinmix and Fitoverma. In the fight against ticks, Actellik will help.
If the bush is regularly inspected, properly looked after, then the likelihood of diseases and pests will be minimal.
Blooming lilacs will not leave anyone indifferent. The plant is associated with spring, with the awakening of nature. For its unpretentiousness to the growing conditions, perennials are planted both in summer cottages and city streets. Gardeners love lilacs for bright floral colors, unique delicate aroma. Designers use shrubs in various design options for landscapes: in single and group plantings, in malls, hedges and flower beds.
Having planted lilacs in your garden plot, you will enjoy the unique colors and aroma.