Streptococcosis of birds (Streptococcosis avium) , sleeping sickness of hens, streptococcal disease, apoplexy septicemia of hens, idiopathic streptococcal peritonitis of hens is an infectious disease of birds, manifested in septic or local form and characterized by paralysis, arthritis, conjunctivitis, and depression.
Historical reference. Streptococcosis of birds, as acute septicemia, was first described in the USA in 1902 by Norgard and Moler, as well as in Germany in 1908 Greve. Streptococcosis of birds is registered in the USA, Sweden, Great Britain, Japan, Australia and other countries.
Economic damage insignificant, since streptococcosis is rare, mortality in this disease is 15-90%.
Etiology. Pathogens of streptococcosis of birds-Streptococcus galinarum, Str. Pyogenes, Str. zymogenes.
In appearance, in smears from the affected organs of birds, microorganisms - short and long gram-positively stained filaments consisting of cocci, find a capsule around the entire cocci chain. In smears from cultures grown on liquid nutrient media, long chains are visible, and in smears from solid nutrient media, diplococci and short chains of 6-8 cocci each. It grows well in many nutrient media, forms a toxin that dissolves red blood cells and white blood cells. Small roundish grayish-white colonies grow on agar. Growing in cereal broth. Milk does not coagulate, indole does not form, gelatin and clotted blood serum do not liquefy, it ferments with the formation of acid glucose, fructose, lactose, levulose, maltose, dextrin, starch, salicin. There is no growth on potatoes. The causative agent is quite stable in the environment and at various sites lasts up to 3-4 months, in a litter with normal humidity up to 7-8 months. Streptococci die at a temperature of 80 ° C after 5 minutes, with the action of 2% emulsions of carbolic acid, lysol, creolin, after 2-3 minutes.
In case of subcutaneous, intramuscular and intraperitoneal infection, the pathogen is pathogenic for pigeons, ducks, turkeys, rabbits, mice and lambs.
Epizootological data. Streptococcosis often affects chickens, chickens, as well as ducks, geese, turkeys, pheasants, pigeons and canaries, and a person is sick. The source of the causative agent of the infection is a sick bird and streptococcus, secreting the pathogen with exhaled air, droppings and exudate from the eyes. The entrance gates for the pathogen are the mucous membranes of the respiratory system, digestive tract, and skin injuries. Possible transovarial route of infection. An ill bird is a carrier of the pathogen. The disease in birds often proceeds in the form of a mixed infection with respiratory mycoplasmosis, infectious bronchitis and laryngotracheitis, pasteurellosis and staphillococcosis. At the same time, experts note a winter - spring rise in epizootics. The incidence in birds is -10-60%, mortality reaches 20-50%.
Pathogenesis. At the site of introduction, streptococci quickly multiply, penetrate into the blood, which is confirmed by the development of bacteremia with the subsequent generalization of the process and their accumulation in parenchymal organs. Streptococci produce toxic products, resulting in damage to blood vessels, hemolysis of blood, the development of necrobiotic processes in the body of a sick bird.
Clinical signs. The incubation period is from several hours to 6 days. The course of streptococcosis of birds can be fulminant, acute and chronic.
In case of lightning fast clinical signs do not appear, the sick bird dies after 12-24 hours.
In acute course the disease proceeds in the form of severe depression, loss of appetite, cyanosis of the skin lesions of the head, hyperemia of the pharyngeal mucosa, lack of oviposition, diarrhea, feather ruffling, conjunctivitis, gluing of the eyelid exudate, drowsiness for several hours, exhaustion. The acute course of the disease in birds lasts from 5 to 7 days.
In chronic course localized lesions in hens: poddermatitis of the crumbs of the extremities, joint inflammation, inflammation and swelling of the beards, paresis, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, impaired bowel function, decreased appetite, exhaustion, complete loss of egg production. In chickens and turkeys, cases of endocarditis are often noted. Pigeons lose their ability to fly, shortness of breath, rhinitis occurs. Ducks have massive conjunctivitis, arthritis, and depression.
Pathological changes. With streptococcosis of birds, cyanosis of visible mucous membranes and skin, edema and hemorrhage in the subcutaneous tissue, muscles are noted. We find serous-fibrinous pleuroperitonitis, perihepatitis, aerosacculitis. A common symptom is subepicardial, sometimes also myocardial hemorrhage. The liver is swollen, under the capsule there are small point hemorrhages, granular and fatty degeneration of the liver, billions of lesions of necrosis in it, the spleen is enlarged. Congestive hyperemia and pulmonary edema. Congestive hyperemia, granular dystrophy and serous glomerulonephritis of the kidneys. Catarrhal hemorrhagic enteritis. Serous fibrinous peritonitis, pericarditis. Congestive hyperemia of the thymus and ovary with follicular deformity and hemorrhage in them. In the productive period, ovary and salpingitis in female individuals. Serious fibrinous or fibrinous-caseous deposits are found in the affected joints.
Diagnosis. The diagnosis of streptococcosis of birds is made on the basis of epizootological, clinical and pathological signs, the allocation of capsular pathogenic streptococcus from the blood of affected parenchymal organs.
Differential diagnosis. In the differential diagnosis, it is necessary to exclude pasteurellosis, pullorosis, colibacteriosis, infectious bronchitis, spirochetosis and staphillococcosis.
Treatment. When streptococcosis of birds, antibiotics and sulfa drugs are used, which are preliminarily checked in the veterinary laboratory for sensitivity. Of antibiotics, streptomycin, penicillin, and tetracycline drugs are used. Medicines are given to the bird with food, water, aerosol. Eprozole is prescribed at the rate of 100 ml per 200 l of water for 3 days.
Immunity and specific prevention. No specific prophylaxis has been developed.
Prevention and control measures. For the prevention of streptococcosis of birds, animal owners must comply with the veterinary and sanitary requirements for the maintenance and feeding of birds.
In the event of a disease, the economy is declared unsuccessful by the Decree of the Governor of the region and restrictions are introduced in it. According to the conditions of restrictions, it is prohibited:
export of hatching eggs and birds to other farms for reproduction, as well as their use for these purposes inside their farm.
A thorough clinical study of the bird is carried out, the whole sick bird is killed, disposed of or destroyed, and the rest of the conditionally sick livestock of the dysfunctional house is treated with antibacterial drugs for therapeutic and preventive purposes, taking into account the sensitivity of the pathogen. Apply bicillin-3 (diluted in physiological saline at the rate of 1 ml per 100 000ED). at a dose of 70 thousand units per 1 kg of poultry mass into the pectoral muscle once. If necessary, after 5-6 days, poultry with food is given 0.1 g 2 times a day for 3 days. Slaughter of birds treated with bicillin is allowed no earlier than 8 days after the use of bicillin.
Eggs obtained from birds of a dysfunctional house, after disinfection with formaldehyde vapor, are used after being cooked in a catering network. The veterinarian serving this farm indicates this in the certificate of form No. 2 (4-vet certificate).
When slaughtering a conditionally healthy bird, a dysfunctional house, a complete evisceration of carcasses is carried out and, in the absence of pathological changes, they are sold on a common basis. If there are changes in the internal organs, they are rejected, and carcasses are used as food after digestion. Depleted carcasses, as well as with the presence of bloody exudate in the chest - abdominal cavity and hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue - are sent for technical disposal.
Corpses must be destroyed or disposed of. Restrictions from a dysfunctional house are removed 30 days after the last case of the isolation of sick birds and the final disinfection.
In a dysfunctional household, the diseased bird is isolated and treated. The room and equipment are disinfected with 2% emulsions of carbolic acid, lysol, and creolin. Manure is disinfected biothermally.
In chickens, the disease proceeds in the form of severe depression, ruffling of feathers, gluing of the exudate eyelids of the eye, drowsiness. In some cases, convulsive movements of the head, limbs, and crest turn blue. Possible intestinal upset and respiratory symptoms.
In a chronic course, inflammation of the joints of the legs, inflammation and swelling of the beards, paresis, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, indigestion, loss of appetite, exhaustion, partial or complete cessation of egg production occur.
Streptococcosis of birds
Birds Streptococcosis (Streptococcosis avium), infect. the disease characterized by hl arr. depression, arthritis, conjunctivitis. Distributed in the United States, Europe, Japan, Australia. Pathogen FROM. n. - Streptococcus zooepidemicus and others. streptococci. The most susceptible chickens, less - pigeons, ducks, turkeys, geese. Ways of natures. infection, the pathogen transmission mechanism and immunity have not been studied. S.'s flow proceeds in the form of an epizootic. Incubat. period from several hours to 6 days. The course is acute, subacute and chronic. In chickens it often proceeds sharply and is manifested by severe depression, ruffling of feathers, gluing of the exudate eyelids of the eyes, drowsiness for several. hours. In some cases, convulsive movements of the head, limbs, and crest turn blue. Possible intestinal upset and respiratory symptoms. With chronic course - inflammation of the joints of the legs, beards, paresis, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, intestinal upset, exhaustion, complete loss of egg production. At autopsy, serous-fibrinous pleuroperitonitis, perihepatitis, aerosaculitis, subepicardial, sometimes myocardial hemorrhages are detected. The liver is edematous, under this capsule there are small point hemorrhages and foci of necrosis, the spleen is enlarged. In the productive period, female individuals have ovaryitis and salpingitis. In joints - serous-fibrinous or fibrno-caseous deposits. When making a diagnosis, the clinic is taken into account. signs, pathologist. changes, the results of bacteriol. studies (isolation of the pathogen from the blood and parenchymal organs).
Treatment: use of penicillin, oxytetracycline with food. Prevention and control measures: compliance with vet. bird keeping requirements. When a disease occurs, the sick bird is isolated and treated, disinfection is carried out.
Lit .: Filippov F.F., Kapitanaki M.V., Chronic course of streptococcal septicemia in hens, Veterinary, 1969, No. 9.
Treatment and prevention
Prevention of streptococcosis is based on increasing the bird's resistance to the disease. For the prevention of streptococcosis and some diseases caused by conditionally pathogenic microflora, it is necessary to lay eggs with a clean shell for incubation, stored for no more than 6 days after laying.
Streptococcosis resistance depends on the presence of a sufficient amount of vitamin A.
For the prevention of streptococcosis and opportunistic infection, you can recommend a mixture: tetracycline - 0.25 g, vitamin B12 - 0.25 mg, vitamin D2 - 400 thousand I.E., fish meal - 30 g, meat and bone meal - 30 g, calcium carbonate - 100 g. The preparations are fed to the bird for 5-6 days with food 2 times a day, 2 g per 1 kg of weight.
For preventive therapy, antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action, nitrofuran and sulfanilamide drugs are often used, which with a short-term action translate the acute process into a chronic one. When using antibiotics, it must be remembered that non-compliance with the accepted dosages and course of treatment leads to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of streptococci.