Cranberries - creeping shrubs, which, as a rule, grows in natural conditions in the north of the country. Cranberry fruits are a source of many vitamins and minerals that are indispensable for the human body. The plant has long been considered wild and only in the 18th century. Thanks to the painstaking work of breeders, varieties have appeared that are suitable for cultivation in the country, regardless of the region.
There are more than 200 varieties. It was first cultivated in the early 19th century. in America. That is why it is often called the American berry. Modern varieties are unpretentious plants that are not afraid of frost and can be grown in any region of our country. The main characteristics are the powerful development of stems, large leaves, very large berries. Popular varieties are Ben Lear (an early ripe variety, the fruits of which are already pleasing at the end of summer, high yield of 400 g per 1 sq. M), Black Veil (ripening of berries begins in early autumn, yield up to 700 g per 1 sq. M), Airlie Black (a more delicate variety that requires shelter for the winter, berries are very tasty, but poorly stored and transported, yield up to 400 g per 1 sq. M, the ripening period of berries is the end of September), Pilgrim (a high-yielding variety that pleases with indicators up to 3 kg with 1 sq. m).
The people often call the plant marsh cranberries. The plant has long shoots (up to 40 cm), due to which it is often used as a groundcover. Marsh cranberries are resistant to adverse external factors, but are significantly inferior in size to the plants of American selection. Popular varieties are Krasa Severa (yield up to 1.5 kg per 1 sq. M, late ripening), Dar Kostroma (yield up to 1 kg per 1 sq. M, average ripening period).
She is the owner of underdeveloped shoots (filiform species up to 30 cm long), small leaves (up to 5 mm) and the same berries. The Eurasian variety of cranberries has an early ripening period - the crop is harvested in mid-summer.
When creating cranberries, it is worth planting varieties with different ripening periods. Thus it turns out to extend the opportunity to enjoy fresh berries.
Recommendations for choosing a type of cranberry:
- In the North of the country, the Urals and Siberia, cultivars of domestic selection of bog cranberries are cultivated. The American species does not reveal its full potential due to harsh climatic conditions,
- In the center of the country, including the Moscow Region, ordinary cranberries and large-fruited varieties with an early ripening period are cultivated
- In warm regions of the country, any kind of berries is grown on black soil.
In the south, growing a plant is difficult due to the high temperature and dry air.
We arrange bushes in the garden - how to do it right?
Natural plant growth - sphagnum bogs with a unique ecosystem. It is these conditions that must be created when growing berries on a summer garden.
For the successful cultivation of cranberries, it is recommended to mount a special garden bed.
Construction of beds for planting cranberries:
- Dig a trench up to 35 cm deep, up to 1 m wide and 4 m long. Cranberry is the owner of a superficial root system and requires an extensive place for growing.
- Mount the sides to prevent erosion of the trench and water retention during irrigation. You can use wooden boards up to 40 cm wide.
- Pour a drainage layer to the bottom of the trench when growing on heavy soils or cover it with a thick film when growing on sandy soils.
- Fill the trench with a pre-prepared acidic substrate.
- Moisten the bed before planting.
When choosing a place for arranging the beds, it should be noted that the plant does not tolerate weeds, dryness and darkness.
Cranberries feel great when groundwater occurs at a depth of 50 cm and gives maximum yields if groundwater flows at a depth of 30 cm.
Exactingness to the ground
The plant grows only on very acidic soils. To grow the plant, prepare the soil mixture:
- 1 part of forest humus,
- 1 part sand
- 1 part of forest soil,
- 2 parts of peat.
The addition of needles or soil from under coniferous trees (and even better the land from the place where the berry grows in the forest) increases the yield several times. The fact is that cranberries, in combination with a fungus, form mycorrhiza, a food necessary for the life of a plant.
For planting young animals, you can use pure horse peat or a mixture of peat with sand. The main requirement is at least 40% peat, the rest is a mixture of soil and compost.
Determination of soil acidity
In industry, the acidity of the soil is determined by a special device - an acid meter. Apply 2 simple methods for determining acidity:
- A handful of the prepared earth is scraped with table vinegar. The appearance of a specific boil and small bubbles indicate a weak acidity. Acidic soil does not react with vinegar.
- Lower the soil in 200 ml of grape juice. At high soil acidity, the juice remains unchanged, at normal or low, it darkens and bubbles.
Optimum acidity (pH 3.5–5.5) can be given by watering the bed with acidified water (1 tsp. Citric or oxalic acid, or 1 tbsp. Vinegar in a bucket of water). An electrolyte is also used for acid batteries (50 ml of the product per 10 liters of water).
Where to get planting material
The purchase of planting material is recommended in specialized nurseries, which provide a guarantee of belonging to the variety. You can plant plants with open and closed root systems.
Saplings of 3 ages are on sale:
- Young plants, whose age is 7-9 months. They are sold in special cassettes and require growing,
- Seedlings 1-1.5 years, planted in separate pots,
- Adults are 2-2.5 years old.
The first harvest gives cranberries at the age of 3-4 years. If you want to accelerate fruiting, you should give preference to adult specimens, but they cost more.
When is it best to plant a berry in the country
The optimal period for planting cranberry seedlings is May. But the plant can be planted earlier: as soon as the ground thaws the planting material can be determined at a constant place of growth.
In the autumn, the berries are not planted. However, it is in the fall that one should worry about the planting site.
Rules for planting garden cranberries
- Prepared bed a few days before planting berries to rake and water,
- Prepare a hole that is slightly larger in size than the roots,
- Remove the seedling from the container and set in the hole,
- Pour peat and water abundantly,
- Mulch the surface of the garden bed.
Seedlings up to 30 cm are suitable for planting, which are buried no more than 10 cm. Cuttings 15 cm high are buried by 10-12 cm. 1-3 seedlings are planted in each hole in a checkerboard pattern with parameters 25x25 cm.
Proper care of flowering plants
Cranberries are not demanding on conditions. When creating natural conditions, it will annually please with a high yield.
An essential requirement for growing cranberries is the rejection of pruning shoots.
Cranberries, whose shoots densely cover the bed, themselves fight weeds and create a unique ecosystem. The plant is trimmed only for decorative use in the landscape.
Frequency of watering and top dressing
Freshly planted specimens need daily watering for 10 days. Further, the plant is watered depending on climatic conditions, but the topsoil must always be moist.
Young cranberries require frequent watering. An adult needs less moisture.
In mid-August, watering is reduced, allowing the plant to prepare for winter sleep.
Cranberries are demanding on the nutritional value of the soil. It is fertilized from spring to mid-summer. Use complex mineral compounds. During the period of active growth, cranberries are fed 4 times.
The summer resident accepts the need to fertilize the plant and to treat infections. If the plant “glows with health”, then the nutrition is minimal.
Professionals recommend adding 5 g of urea, 15 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium sulfate per year (fertilizer is applied in 3 doses in equal proportions).
Propagation by cuttings
The easiest way. Young shoots 10 cm long are cut in early summer. Cuttings are planted in containers or on pre-prepared beds, leaving no more than 3 cm above the soil surface. Young plants are watered daily. To maintain humidity, an artificial greenhouse should be mounted (cover with plastic wrap, glass, PET bottles). Several cuttings in one hole can be planted in a permanent place.
When seed propagation follows:
- Take a shallow container and fill with soil,
- Spread the seeds evenly on the surface,
- Sprinkle crops with river sand (not more than 1 mm),
- Pour and cover with polyethylene,
- Put in a cold place with a temperature of 2-5 degrees for 3 months for stratification,
- Set the crops in a warm place with a temperature of up to 20 degrees,
- After the emergence of seedlings (within 1 month), young plants are planted,
- In early summer, cranberries are planted in a permanent place.
Cranberries grown from seeds enter the fruiting period late. However, plants are more hardy.
Harvesting and storage
Cranberries are harvested at different times:
- A solid, unripe berry is harvested in late summer. Not fully colored fruits are placed in a warm place for ripening,
- Berry harvested in the middle of autumn, fully ripened, is stored much longer.
Cranberries can be harvested in the spring. At least in the north of Russia, it is during this period that local residents harvest wild berries.
Cranberries are kept fresh for several months. Berries can also be stored by pouring boiled water. Another storage method is pickling - ripe berry is placed in water with sugar and vinegar.
Cranberries harvested in the spring are practically not stored. That is why it is used fresh or cooked in compotes, preserves, sauces.
Cranberries can be grown in any region of the country when creating conditions that are close to real. The plant is rich in vitamins and minerals. Professionals recommend to settle a swamp crane on a summer cottage and enjoy its acidity.
Planting cranberries in the country
For growing cranberries in the garden, a well-lit area with fairly high humidity is suitable. Therefore, cranberries are great for landscaping ponds in a garden. It will be not only a delicious bush, but also aesthetically attractive. If you have a pond on or near a site, be sure to plant such a useful plant for ponds as Air Marsh on its shore.
When landing. note that groundwater should not be located close to the roots of cranberries - this can lead to their decay. The optimal distance from the roots to the water is 0.5 -1 m.
Cranberries are not picky about the soil, so if you focus on the soil, absolutely any variety will do. The only condition for the land under the cranberries is that it should not be excessively wet and dense. Peat and moist soils with sufficient acidity are perfect. Under such conditions, Blueberries and Blueberries will feel good.
Before embarking on planting, you should responsibly approach getting rid of weeds, as well as digging the soil. It must be well loosened and leveled. Before planting, the ground should be watered abundantly - 1 liter of water will need 10 liters of water. After all the preparatory work is completed, form the holes for cranberries.
The formation of holes and planting cranberries is as follows:
- In the depths of the hole should be 6-8 cm.
- After planting a bush, the earth is rammed and spilled with warm water.
- The distance between plants should vary between 50 and 70 cm.
- To water one plant, you need 5 liters of liquid.
- The earth around the plant is covered with peat having an acidity of 4.5 - 4.8 pH. The layer thickness should be 5-10 cm.
Pay special attention to cranberries at the initial stage of growth. In the first couple of years, carefully remove weeds near the plant, as well as constantly loosening, watering and fertilizing the soil. Each time you irrigate, replenish the peat layer on the soil surface. After three years, care can be minimized - good enough cranberry watering.
Plant care does not stop even with the advent of winter. A little frost with heavy snow cranberries experiencing quite well. But if winter does not please you with snow or severe frosts come, the bush should be covered. A layer of ice will help protect the plant from freezing. To do this, upon the arrival of subzero temperature, the plant is watered with water, after which the bush will be under a layer of protective crust.
Adding an article to a new collection
Do not want to go for cranberries for peat bogs or spend substantial sums on its purchase? Plant this difficult berry in the country, follow our recommendations and in a couple of years become the owner of your own cranberry land.
Useful properties of cranberries have been known since ancient times, and to this day this berry is widely used in cosmetology (for the preparation of anti-aging creams), dentistry (cranberry juice prevents the formation of caries) and other areas of medicine. Cranberry juice inhibits the growth of cancer cells, helps to lose weight.
Many people know about the benefits of cranberries for the body. Due to the high content of vitamins C, E and group B, as well as organic acids, tannin, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, cranberry juice helps to get on your feet with colds and infectious diseases.
Garden cranberries need competent planting and good care. The plant is demanding on the soil (level of acidity, degree of moisture and air permeability), so all the preferences of the berry should be taken into account when preparing the site for planting.
How to distinguish marsh cranberries from large-fruited
In areas in central Russia, large-fruited cranberries brought to us from the United States and bog, which is a local native, can also be grown. Both options are also on sale and, although they look very similar in appearance, it is advisable to understand what exactly you acquire and intend to grow.
Cranberries - a perennial frost-resistant shrub with small dark green leathery leaves and a root system located at a depth of 10-15 cm. It blooms with small pinkish flowers collected in a brush on vertical shoots. Horizontal shoots of cranberries do not give berries, but grow stronger than vertical ones. In bog cranberries, their length reaches 40 cm, and in large-fruited cranberries, even 2 m. Vertical shoots in both varieties are about 20 cm.
Marsh cranberries are better suited to our latitudes, it blooms in late May, and in mid-September is ready for harvest. Large-fruited cranberries begin to bloom only in mid-June, therefore only early varieties have time to ripen, and late ripe ones are suitable only for cultivation in the southern regions.
Despite the fact that the berry of large-fruited cranberries (weight 2.5 g) is almost twice as large as the berries of the marsh cranberries (weight 1.5 g), it is more profitable to grow the second, since it is winter-hardy, does not need shelter and lends itself well to propagation in the conditions of the infield.
Propagation of garden cranberries
If you are sorry for the money to buy planting material for a cranberry plantation, you can always buy several bushes, and then propagate them yourself.Cranberries are propagated by cuttings, which are cut from horizontal and vertical shoots in the first half of May, during budding. The length of the cuttings should be about 10-12 cm.
Rooted cuttings in a mixture of peat and sand (2: 1), falling asleep so that no more than 4 cm remained on the surface. Cuttings should be planted in groups according to the 10 × 10 cm pattern, and then sprinkled with a layer of coarse sand on top. Young cranberry seedlings need regular watering and steadily moist soil. The overgrown bushes will begin to bear fruit in the 3-4th year of life.
Garden Cranberry Soil
Cranberries bear fruit well on very acidic soil (pH 4.0-5.5). The water used for irrigation should also have an acid reaction (pH 4-5), otherwise the plants first show signs of chlorosis on the leaves, and then the growth of the bushes stops.
Although it is believed that cranberries love moisture, a moderate, rather than excessive, soil moisture is more suitable for a plant. It is important to constantly maintain in a slightly moist state the top layer of soil in which the cranberry root system is located. In addition, the soil must be water and breathable (peat, sandy loam, sand will do).
Site preparation and planting cranberries
Before you figure out how to plant cranberries, you should pay special attention to preparing the site. The bed is prepared in August-September, and planting is carried out in the spring (late April-May), when buds open on the bushes.
The size of cranberry should be 140 × 400 cm or more. After planting seedlings along its perimeter, boards are installed that protrude 20-25 cm above the ground.
A place for cranberries is chosen even and well-lit by the sun. It is best to make a bed based on peat. To do this, remove the top layer of the earth (20-25 cm), and the resulting recess is filled with horse peat. If it is not, you can prepare the soil mixture from sawdust, fallen needles and rotted forest litter - in equal proportions. You can add some sand to this soil mixture.
To acidify the soil, the soil is poured with acidified water (at the rate of 10 liters of water per 1 sq. M). To do this, use citric or oxalic acid (1 tsp per 3 l of water), 9% apple cider vinegar (100 g per 10 l of water) or sulfuric acid (based on 50 ml per 10 l of water). The soil is moistened and poured there 15 g of ammonium sulfate and 7.5 g of potassium sulfate.
They dig a planting hole twice as large as an earthen lump of seedlings. A drain of pebbles or gravel is laid at the bottom with a layer of 10 cm, then a fertilized and slightly moistened soil mixture is poured. The seedling together with the earthen lump is placed so that the root neck is located at the same level as in the container. The plant is sprinkled with earth, watered abundantly, compacted and mulched with coarse sand (4-5 cm layer).
Cranberry harvesting dates depend not only on the variety, but also on the region. In the middle lane, as a rule, cranberries ripen in September, however, if the berries do not have time to ripen, then you can leave them for the winter under the snow and collect cranberries, oyster mushrooms in March. It is stored worse and contains less vitamins, but it fights well with seasonal vitamin deficiency.
You can distinguish ripe berries by the color of the seeds inside - they should be brownish, in extreme cases, yellow.
Ripe cranberries are stored for 2-3 months if kept in a cool, dry place. You can also freeze berries, make fruit juice or juice from them and preserve it.
We decided to plant cranberries and do not know which variety to choose? To get started, buy one of the most popular and proven options.
Where does garden cranberry grow
Before, before cultivation, cranberries grew only in swampy areas, where the acidity of the soil was significantly increased. North America is considered her homeland., and the first explorers of America called it a berry.
Just a couple of centuries ago, cranberries were harvested in swamps, and now growing on a large scale on plantations is already practiced, where conditions favorable for growth and as close to natural conditions as possible are created.
In Russia, various varieties of cranberries are most widely used. in Karelia, Kostroma and the Leningrad region.
By creating suitable conditions and proper care, cranberry yields can reach up to 11 tons per hectare of plantings.
Cranberry berries are now widely used in the manufacture of confectionery, juice drinks and fruit drinks, jams and jellies, in connection with which, the cultivation of this plant is not only in demand, but can also become a good source of income.
The program “Live healthy!” Tells about cranberries:
Requirements for a garden plot for growing
Despite the fact that cranberries are considered frost-resistant and unpretentious plants, growing them in their household plots and summer cottages is considered quite a laborious process due to the need to provide a special microclimate and the conditions in which it will produce a good crop.
A land plot for growing before planting young shoots is thoroughly prepared, since this plant feels good in high humidity.
Cranberries are a moisture-loving plantIn this connection, the presence of groundwater will be a significant advantage of the site for planting, the depth of their flow at the level of about 40 centimeters is considered optimal.
In this case, the best soil for growing will be peat, in which the water level is at an optimum level for cranberries. Loam and sandstone are also suitable for cultivation.
It is better to make a site for planting cranberries among trees or other plantings.which will not prevent sunlight from entering it, but at the same time protect it from the wind.
How to grow cranberries in your area:
There are two ways to propagate and further plant cranberries - generative and vegetative.
Generative - seeded it is produced very rarely and mainly for any breeding experiments, since the resulting plant does not have the characteristics of its parent.
If your goal is to grow cranberries with certain properties that are inherent in the maternal shoot, then it would be better to use cuttings method.
Cranberry cuttings are prepared during the period when their shoots grow intensively. Take green cuttings with a length of 10 centimeters and planted in pots with a mixture of peat, sand and rotted needles, or immediately into the soil - in a permanent place.
Cuttings deepen by two to three centimeters, slightly compact the soil around the trunk and moisturize abundantly.
If your goal is to grow cranberries with certain properties that are inherent in the maternal shoot, then it will be better to use the cuttings
Until the rooting of the cuttings it is necessary to monitor soil moisture - depending on the humidity and temperature conditions, sometimes the garden is watered two to three times a day - under the condition of abundant irrigation of the soil with water, the shoots take root quickly enough.
If the landing site is under the sun, then it is better to make protection for the cuttings from the fabric.
During seed propagation, ripe cranberry fruits are taken., carefully rubbed and washed with water. Selected seeds are immediately planted. This operation is carried out in spring or before autumn in pots containing peat and a small layer of sand.
Seeds in the soil are covered with glass, abundantly irrigated with water and placed in a warm place accessible to light. After planting the seeds, the soil is regularly watered, and the room, which contains containers with germinating seeds, is ventilated.
If mold appears on the surface of the earth from abundant moisture, they will need to be treated with a fungicide solution.
During seed propagation, ripe cranberry fruits are taken, gently triturated and washed with water. The selected seeds are immediately planted
Average, after three to four weeks, with proper care, seedlings appear, after which it will be necessary to remove the glass, but to maintain the regime of abundant watering.
After the appearance of four to five leaves in the shoots, they are planted - picking either in a pot one sprout, or immediately in the soil of a greenhouse or greenhouse at a distance of 10 centimeters from each other.
Further cultivation of shoots is carried out during the year with special care - plentiful watering and regular feeding with a solution of Kemira - based on one tablespoon per 10 liters of water.
Usually, a solution is prepared at the rate of one liter per square meter of the shoot area, and when watering, be sure to ensure that the solution does not fall on the leaves - otherwise you can burn the leaves.
Next, the shoots are transplanted to a more spacious place, where they grow for another two to three years, after which you can plant them in a permanent place.
The nuances of care
The basic rule of caring for cranberry seedlings for good development and ensuring a rich harvest in the future is sufficient watering.
Especially important is the presence of high humidity during the rooting of seedlings, especially at high air temperatures.
During the growing season, plants are fed twice a month with various complexes of mineral fertilizers and watering with a weak acid solution (citric or acetic).
Soil acidification for the first two to three years after planting can be omitted.
Care for garden cranberries - this is abundant watering, acidified water, removal of horizontal shoots
For the formation and growth of a large number of fruits it is necessary to remove horizontal shoots from the plant, thus stimulating the development of vertical, on which mainly a larger number of fruits develop. This operation is performed in spring or autumn.
For winter, in areas with insufficient snow, cranberries are sprinkled with a layer of peatthat protects the shoots from freezing.
With constant proper care of plants and the presence of good weather conditions, cranberries will certainly please you with an abundant harvest of berries.